Child and Adolescent Psychopathology Flashcards Preview

B&B Exam 2 > Child and Adolescent Psychopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology Deck (14):

Recurrent episodes of extended and extremely well remembered dysphoric dreams that usually involve efforts to avoid threats to survival or security or physical integrity. Nightmares generally occur in the second half of a major sleep episode.
On waking from the nightmare, the individual becomes oriented and alert
The episodes cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other areas of functioning
The symptoms cannot be explained by the effects of a drug of abuse or medication
Nightmares cannot be attributed to another mental disorder of medical condition
Acute: less than one month; subacute: 1-6 months; persistent: more than 6 months
Mild: less than one per week; moderate: multiple times a week; severe: nightly

nightmare disorder


Recurrent episodes of abrupt terror arousals from sleep, usually beginning with a panicked scream; intense fear and signs of autonomic arousal
Relative unresponsiveness to efforts to comfort the individual during the episode
Little or no recall of dream imagery
Amnesia for the episode
Significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning
Symptoms cannot be explained by another mental disorder, medical condition, or the effects of a drug or medication

night terror type of NREM sleep arousal disorder


Deficits in intellectual functioning: reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, exceptional learning (measured by IQ tests)
IQ two SD below average represents significant defect (less than 70)
Deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning: communication, social skills, personal independence, school or work functioning
Limitations occur during the developmental period (evident in childhood or adolescence)

intellectual disability


Persistent restricted progress in learning manifested as a range of observable description behaviors or symptoms (at least one must persist for 6 months despite interventions)
Inaccurate or slow/effortful word reading, frequently guessing words, difficulty understanding what is read, difficulty spelling difficulty with written expression, difficulty mastering number sense/calculations, difficulty with mathematical reasoning
Performance of the specific academic skill is well below average for age or average only with high levels of sustained support
Interference with academic performance, avoidance of subject areas
Learning disabilities are readily apparent in early grades but may not appear until later grades with increased demands
Specified by severity

specific learning disorder


Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following: deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
Symptoms must be present in early development
Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or toher important areas of current functioning
Disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability or global developmental delay
Specifiers: accompanying intellectual impairment, language impairment, medical/genetic condition, mental or behavioral disorder, catatonia

autism spectrum disorder


Persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication as manifested by all of the following: deficits in using communication for social purposes, impairment in the ability to change communication to match context or needs of the listener, difficulties following rules for conversation and storytelling, difficulties understanding what is not explicitly stated
Deficits result in functional limitations in effective communication, social participation, social relationships, academic achievement, or occupational performance, individually or in combination
Onset of symptoms is in early developmental period
Symptoms are not attributable to another medical or neurological condition or to another mental disorder

social communication disorder


Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior occurs in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated
At least three of the following in the past 12 months with at least one in the last 6 months: bullies/threatens/intimidates others, initiates physical fights, used a weapon that can cause serious harm, physically cruel to others, physically cruel to animals, stolen while confronting a victim, forces someone into sexual activity, set a fire with the intention of causing damage, deliberately destroyed other’s property, broken into someone’s property, lies to gain benefit, stolen items of nontrivial value, stays out late despite prohibition, run away from home, truant from school
Disturbance causes significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning

conduct disorder


At least four symptoms of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, vindictiveness
Occurs with at least one individual who is not a sibling
Causes significant problems at work, school, or home
Occurs on its own rather than as part of the course of another mental health problem
Persists for at least 6 months
Behaviors displayed more often than typical for child’s peers
Specified based on severity

oppositional defiant disorder


Persistent (at least 4 weeks under 18 and 6 months in adults) and excessive anxiety beyond that expected for the child’s developmental level related to separation or impending separation from the attachment figure as evidenced by at least three of the following: recurrent excessive distress when anticipating or experiencing separation from home or major attachment figure, persistent and excessive worry about losing major attachment figures (death, illness, injury), persistent and excessive worry about experiencing untoward event, persistent reluctance or refusal to go out, persistent and excessive fear of being left alone, persistent reluctance or refusal to sleep away from home, repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation, repeated complaints of physical symptoms with anticipated separation
Associated with panic attacks in youth

separation anxiety disorder


Consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, persistent social and emotional disturbance, pattern of extremes of insufficient care, care is presumed to be responsible for behavior
Criteria for autism spectrum disorder are not met
Disturbance is evident before age 5
Developmental age of at least 9 months

reactive attachment disorder


Pattern of behavior in which a child actively approaches and interacts with unfamiliar adults in an impulsive, incautious, and overfamiliar way
Behaviors are not limited to impulsivity but also include socially disinhibited behavior, pattern of extremes of insufficient care, care presumed to be responsible for disturbed behavior
Child has developmental age of at least 9 months

disinhibited social engagement disorder


Neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by disruption in physical, intellectual, emotional behavioral, and cognitive functioning
Most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children
Flattened facial features, small head, short neck, protruding tongue, upward slanting eyes, small ears, poor muscle tone, broad hands with single palm crease, short fingers, extensive flexibility, short height, white spits on the iris

Down's syndrome


Neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by disruption in physical, intellectual, emotional behavioral, and cognitive functioning
Most common inherited developmental disability
Behavioral problems, social anxiety, hand-biting or flapping, poor eye contact, sensory disorders, increased aggression, intellectual disability, large ears, long face, large testicles, hyperflexible joints
Social, friendly, excellent imitation skills, strong visual memory

Fragile X syndrome


Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development as characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity
Severe inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12
Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings
There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with or reduce the quality of social, academic, or occupational functioning
Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of another psychotic disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder