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Flashcards in Personality Disorders Deck (10):

Cluster A Personality Disorder
Unwarranted suspiciousness and a tendency to misinterpret the actions of others as threatening, or deliberately harmful stereotype of militia/hate group member, isolated bomber/killer
Less than 1% lifetime risk
Ddx: normal vigilance, delusional disorder, paranoid schizophrenia
Defense mechanism: projection

Paranoid Personality Disorder


Cluster A Personality Disorder
Detachment from others, a restricted range of emotional expression and a lack of interest in activities
Stereotype of socially awkward, isolated computer hacker
Less than 1% lifetime risk
May be low-grade variant or pre-psychotic stage of schizophrenia
Ddx: autism, Asperger’s syndrome

Schizoid Personality Disorder


Cluster A Personality Disorder
Deficits in interpersonal relationships and distortions in both cognition and perception
Stereotype of the clairvoyant mystic
2-3% lifetime risk
chronic low grade form of psychosis
considered part of the schizophrenia spectrum, shares genetic diathesis and biological features of schizophrenia (increased homovanillic acid, aberrant eye tracking, cognitive deficits, electrophys abnormalities, brain abnormalities)
defense mechanism: fantasy

Schizotypal Personality Disorder


Cluster B Personality Disorder
Guiltless, exploitative and irresponsible behavior with the hallmark being conscious deceit of others
Stereotype of cold and callus criminal
Lifetime risk: 3% in males and 1% in females
Associated with drug abuse, criminality, violence, use of weapons in fights, spouse/child abuse, sexual crime, somatization disorder, conversion disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder, IQ 70-90
Strong evidence for genetic factors in heritability
Non-localizing neurological signs, lower reactivity of ANS, low cortical arousal and reduced level of inhibitory anxiety, lower levels of 5-HIAA
Defense mechanism: acting out, denial, externalization

Antisocial Personality Disorder


Cluster B Personality Disorder
Excessive emotional expression and attention-seeking behavior
2-3% lifetime risk
temperamental factors: intensity, hypersensitivity, extroversion
associated with somatization disorders, drug abuse, conversion disorders, non-melancholic depression often with dysphoria
defense mechanism: hypochondriasis, somatization, regression

Histrionic Personality Disorder


Cluster B Personality Disorder
Grandiosity, lack of empathy and a need for admiration
Stereotype of wealthy real estate tycoon who enjoys firing people
Less than 1% lifetime risk
Men 3x more likely than women to be diagnosed
Associated with histrionic personality disorder, hypomania, substance abuse
Defense mechanism: omnipotent control, denial, externalization

Narcissistic Personality Disorder


Cluster B Personality Disorder
Pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior
Often disrupts family and work life, long-term planning, and the individual’s sense of self-identity
Disorder of emotional regulation
2% lifetime risk
heterogeneous group- associated with mood disorder, impaired impulse control (self-injury, suicide attempts, suicides, domestic violence, assault, drug abuse), childhood sexual abuse
relationship between impulsive aggression and serotonin signaling
affective instability or emotional dysregulation correlated with imbalances in cholinergic, noradrenergic, and GABAergic pathways
genetic association of impulsivity, suicidality, affective instability
defense mechanism: acting out, splitting, projective identification, dissociation

Borderline Personality Disorder


Cluster C Personality Disorder
Rigidity, perfectionism, orderliness, indecisiveness, interpersonal control, and emotional constriction
1% lifetime risk, more common in males
associated with OCD, anxiety disorders, non-melancholic depression
Defense mechanism: undoing

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder


Cluster C Personality Disorder
Inhibition, introversion, and anxiety in social situations
1% lifetime risk
associated with anxiety disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders, benzodiazepine abuse, non-melancholic depression
introversion as a hereditary factor
distinguish from social phobia which as a less pervasive and less profound impact

Avoidant Personality Disorder


Cluster C Personality Disorder
Submissive behavior and excessive needs for emotional support
Less than 1% lifetime risk
Associated with anxiety disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders, benzodiazepine abuse, non-melancholic depression
Temperamental features: submissiveness, low activity levels
Associated with severe childhood illness and development of overdependence
Defense mechanism: idealization

Dependent Personality Disorder