Chp 12 GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp 12 GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Deck (71)
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1

anorexia

loss of appetite (orexia = appetite)

2

aphagia

inability to swallow

3

ascites

an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos = bag)

4

buccal

in the cheek

5

diarrhea

frequent loose or liquid stools

6

constipation

infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (constipo = to press together)

7

dyspepsia

indigestion (pepsis = digestion)

8

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

9

eructation

belch

10

flatulence

gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus = a blowing)

11

halitosis

bad breath (halitus = breath)

12

hematemesis

vomiting blood

13

hematochezia

red blood in stool (chezo = defecate)

14

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

15

hyperbilirubinemia

excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood

16

icterus

yellow discoloraion of the skin, sclera (white of eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)

17

jaundice

yellow discoloraion of the skin, sclera (white of eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)

18

melena

dark colored, tarry stool caused by old blood

19

nausea

feeling of sick in the stomach

20

steatorrhea

feces containing fat

21

sublingual

under the tongue

22

hypoglossal

under the tongue

23

ankyloglossia

a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum (ankyl/o = crooked or stiff)

24

cheilitis

inflammation of the lip

25

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage

26

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

27

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

28

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

a backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus

29

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

30

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

31

parotitis

inflammation of the parotid gland, also called mumps

32

peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

a sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the GI system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria (pept/o = to digest)

33

gastric ulcer

ulcer located in the stomach

34

duodenal ulcer

ulcer located in the duodenum

35

pyloric stenosis

a narrowed condition of the pylorus

36

sialoadenitis

inflammation of a salivary gland

37

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

38

anal fistula

an abnormal tubelike passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)

39

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

40

colitis

inflammation of the colon (large intestine)

41

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations

42

colorectal polyps

benign tissue growths on the mucous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous and likely to develop into malignancy

43

pediculated polyp

projected on a stalk (ped/o = foot)

44

sessile polyp

lying flat on the surface (sessilis = low growing)

45

diverticulum

an abnormal side pocket in the GI tract usually related to lack of dietary fiber

46

diverticulosis

presence of diverticula in the GI tract, especially the colon

47

diverculitis

inflammation of diverticula

48

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g., amebic dysentery)

49

enteritis

inflammation of small intestine

50

hemorrhoid

swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)

51

hernia

protrusion of a part from its normal location

52

hiatal hernia

protrusion of part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm

53

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region

54

incarcerated hernia

hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction

55

strangulated hernia

hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous

56

umbilical hernia

protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)

57

ileitis

inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine

58

intussusception

prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus = within; suscipiens = to take up)

59

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

60

proctitis

inflammation of the rectum and anus

61

volvulus

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction (volvo = to roll)

62

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

63

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

64

choledocholithiasis

presence of stones in the common bile duct

65

cholelithiasis

presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

66

cirrhosis

chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)

67

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

68

hepatitis A

infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hep A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water

69

hepatitis B

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

70

hepatitis C

inflammation of the liver caused by the hep C virus (HCV), transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely contracted sexually)

71

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas