Flashcards in Chp 2 Terms Deck (18):
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Arm of the U.S. Department of Justice that investigates violations of federal law, gathers crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory, and helps train local law enforcement officers.
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
Compiled by the FBI, the UCR is the most widely used source of national crime and delinquency statistics.
Part I offenses (also known as index crimes
Offenses including homicide and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, arson, and motor vehicle theft; recorded by local law enforcement officers. These crimes are tallied quarterly and sent to the FBI for inclusion in the UCR.
Part II offenses
All crimes other than Part I offenses; recorded by local law enforcement officers, arrests for these crimes are tallied quarterly and sent to the FBI for inclusion in the UCR.
Analyzing the relationship between two or more independent variables (such as murder convictions and death sentence), while controlling for the influence of a dependent variable (such as race).
Selecting a limited number of people for study as a representative of a larger group.
All people who share a particular characteristic, such as all high school students or all police officers.
A research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
A statistical technique that synthesizes results from prior evaluation studies. It gathers data from a number of previous studies.
A type of review that uses rigorous methods for locating, appraising, and synthesizing evidence from prior evaluation studies. It involves collecting the findings from previously conducted scientific studies that address a particular problem, appraising and synthesizing the evidence, and using collective evidence to address a particular scientific question.
Dark figures of crime
Incidents of crime and delinquency that go undetected by police.
Racial threat theory
As the size of the African American population increases, the amount of social control imposed against African Americans by the police grows proportionately.
Aging-out process (also known as desistance or spontaneous remission)
The tendency for youths to reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they age; aging out is thought to occur among all groups of offenders.
Age of onset
Age at which youths begin their delinquent careers; early onset is believed to be linked with chronic offending patterns.
Chronic juvenile offenders
Youths who have been arrested four or more times during their minority and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts; this small group, known as the “chronic 6 percent,” is believed to engage in a significant portion of all delinquent behavior. These youths do not age out of crime but continue their criminal behavior into adulthood.
Someone who has been arrested five times or more before age 18.
Continuity of crime
The idea that chronic juvenile offenders are likely to continue violating the law as adults.