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Flashcards in Chpt 7 & 8 Quiz Deck (22):

Private Speech

Studied by vgotsky

child hears what others say to her and then she says it to herself; this is what the child does to change external interactions into internal thoughts; child talks to herself to guide their own actions



what adult does to move the chuld through the ZPD to achieve knowledge. Scaffolding is structure that goes up around a building to workers can work on building; adult helps kid form a cognitive structure so he/she can understand the tasks better.



(general intelligence) that underscores all cognitive abilities.



the ability to reverse mental operations; if contents of a short, wide glass are poured into a tall, thin glass the water level will be higher in the second glass and child thinks second glass has more water; if kid has mastered reversibility she will understand the amount of water is the same.

Concrete Operations Stage


Theory of Core Knowledge

The theory that basic areas of knowledge are innate and built into the human brain


Zone of proximal development (ZPD):

he let kids perform tasks on their own – then with a helper; the difference between what he/she does on own and what does with helper is called ZPD


Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s theory provides a set of basic principles of cognitive development: (Piaget 1896-1980; studied biology and philosophy and interested in epistemology – philosophy of how we come to understand the world; know human beings must adapt successfully to their environments; field called genetic epistemology)

Intelligence is an active, constructive, and dynamic process.

Mistakes children make in their thinking are usually meaningful because the mistakes reflect the nature of their thought processes at their current stage of development.

As children develop, the structure of their thinking changes, and these new modes of thought are based on the earlier structures.



Hard to define

the ability to adapt to the environment, to think and learn, and to understand oneself and others

Many factors effect it: quality of school instruction, school policies, classroom, etc


Lack of Conservation

children don’t understand that the quantity of something (amount) remains the same regardless of changes in its appearance

Preoperational Stage


Wechsler IQ

WISC-V is widely used gives a full scale IQ and 5 composite index scores:

1) verbal comprehension 4) fluid reasoning
2) visual spatial 5) processing speed
3) working memory


Infant Intelligence

Difficult because infants cannot understand test instructions or provide verbal responses.

Most tests of infant intelligence assess physical, motor, sensory, and/or early language development. Newer approaches also incorporate information processing.

These tests can identify intellectual disability and developmental delays.

Information Processing tests : include measures of infant attention, attraction to novelty and habituation to familiar stimuli (remember what this word means?)
These measures are good predictors of later intelligence.

Attention, processing speed and memory in infancy can predict general intelligence at age 11.


Sensorimotor Stage

(birth-2 years); they understand the world through the information they take in through their senses and their actions on it



When we need to change our schemas to fit new experiences


Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Linguistics - sensitivity to the meanings and sounds of words, mastery of syntax, appreciation of the ways language can be used

Logical-Mathematical - Understanding of objects and symbols and of actions that be performed on them and of the relations between these actions, ability to identify problems and seek explanations

Spatial - capacity to perceive the visual world accurately, to perform transformations upon perceptions and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of physical stimuli

Musical - Sensitivity to individual tones and phrases of music, an understanding of ways to combine tones and phrases into larger musical rhythms and structures, awareness of emotional aspects of music

Bodily-Kinesthetic - Use of one’s body in highly skilled ways for expressive or goal-directed purposes, capacity to handle objects skillfully

Interpersonal - Ability to notice and make distinctions among the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of other people and potentially to act on this knowledge

Intrapersonal - access to one’s own feelings, ability to draw on one’s emotions to guide and understand one’s behavior, recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses

Naturalistic -- sensitivity and understanding of plants, animals, and other aspects of nature

Existential - sensitivity to issues related to the meaning of life, death, and other aspects of the human condition


Critiques of Piaget

Ages and stages are not necessarily accurate.

Stages are not necessarily distinct from one another.

Do his ideas stand up across cultures? In general – they do but they emerge at later ages.


Formal Operational Stage

(12 years and older) adolescents can think both logically and abstractly.



occurs when you experience a state of confusion in which your schemas do not fit your experiences (if child has never seen a crab served in the shell so if the child is served something different than the food he/she is familiar with they won’t connect it with the schema for food - this is disequilibrium and it makes them uncomfortable; they try to make sense of this experience and return to a state of equilibration)


Concrete Operational Stage

(7-12 years) children can now think logically but their thinking is concrete and not abstract


Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

He believed all ideas begin in the social world.
Learning is culturally based
Children learn through process of social collaboration with someone who knows more.

There are 3 ways kids ideas are shaped: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), Scaffolding, and Private Speech



When we can fit new experiences easily into our preexisting schemas


Preoperational Stage

(2-7 years); using mental symbols but do not yet think logically and their thinking is egocentric.

In this stage, children do not yet have logical thought, and instead think magically and egocentrically

Fantasy Play: a banana they are holding can be imagined to be a telephone and they talk into it



cognitive frameworks that place concepts, objects, or experiences into categories or groups of associations; it’s how kids make sense of the world; each of us has a unique way of organizing experiences based on schemas developed; how do you categorize shoes? By color. Does it have laces, type of heels)