(2 months - birth)Sexual differentiation: in male at 9 weeks testes begin to produce male hormone called androgen and in female genitalia continues developing and reproductive system developing.Hormones also influence development of the brainbegins at 10 weeks; fetus braeathes in and expel amniotic fluid; at 12 weeks female feels movement; at 20 weeks moves lots and after this point fetal movement declines; at 32 weeks fetus spends 90% of its time sleepingPrenatal “breathing”
Berggasse 19, Vienna
Freud's theory focused on unconscious urges that move the person through a series of stages that shape our personality
Third Stage of Labor
uterus contracts to expel placenta and no pain now and this stage lasts 5-10 minutes; if an episiotomy done then doctor closes the incision.
lFor neurons to work efficiently, they need to be coated with a fatty substance known as myelin.
lMyelination continues throughout childhood and adolescence.
lIt wraps around the nerves to ensure the message is sent along a neuron.
lMyelination begins in the lower centers at the base of the brain and continues to the higher centers of the cortex.
Second Stage of Labor
when cervix dilates to 10 centimeters; uterine contractions push baby down birth canal; about 11% of vaginal deliveries involve an episiotomy à surgical incision from back of vagina to anus to allow baby to exit the birth canal without tearing tissue
Baby out – one shoulder at a time; baby’s airway cleared, baby placed on mother’s stomach and umbilical cord clamped and cut – sometimes by the dad.
Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors
Risk Factors: premature birth, low birth weight. Maternal exposure to to toxins or infections, lack of oxygen during birth.This condition does not progressively get worse; we want to intervene early.Medications help control seizures and muscle spasms, physical therapy helps.A new medication might help by regrowing myelin on nerve cells in the brain. A lack of oxygen disrupts the nerve cell’s ability to create myelin – so cells die and this can result in cerebral palsy.
Agnosia is a neurological disorder that results in an inability to recognize objects (such as an apple or a key), persons, smells, or sounds despite normally functioning senses (such as visual or auditory). These deficits are not due to memory loss.
French-Algerian novelist, essayist, and philosopher. Wrote The Stranger
lTay-Sachs disease is a rare disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme that helps break down fatty substances. These fatty substances, called gangliosides, build up to toxic levels in the child's brain and affect the function of the nerve cells. As the disease progresses, the child loses muscle control. Eventually, this leads to blindness, paralysis and death. Occurs in: Eastern and Central European Jewish communities (Ashkenazi Jews
lSymptoms are loss of motor skills, including turning over, crawling and sitting ; Exaggerated reactions when the baby hears loud noises; Seizures; Vision and hearing loss; Muscle weakness; Movement problems
Errors in Reaction
don’t attack the person making the assertion – just evaluate their idea; if you can’t defend your assertion – don’t shift the burden on the person challenging you to prove their point
Panning for Gold Thinking Style
Where you ask questions about what you read and hear It is an “interactive” approach; you interact and are challenged with the material presented to you
Router - sorts data
Freud’s view of the three parts of personality
Id: operates on the pleasure principle (present at birth, instinctual drives, infant wants when they want it; seeks immediate gratification) Ego: operates on the reality principle (child now more aware of reality of world; ego helps child negotiate between basic drives and the real world; ego represses instincts) Superego: operates on the morality principle (between ages 5 and 7 child learns moral principles)
Extra 21st chromosome
Symptoms: intellectual disability; typical facial features; poor muscle tone, possible problems with heart, digestion, and hearing
Mentally Incompotent to Stand Trial
neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them.
Dopamine deficiency results in Parkinson's Disease,
and people with low dopamine activity may be more prone to addiction
The capacity to take the role of the other
Three Types of Errors in Critical Thinking
Errors of Perception Errors of Judgment Errors of Reaction
Autism 3 Distinctive Behaviors
difficulties with social interactionproblems with verbal and nonverbal communicationrepetitive, compulsive behavior or interests, restrictive behavior
Dealing with and reacting to the environment
a group of brain based disorders affecting movement, balance and posture, speech, coordination.
made up of nuclei controls motor control
Language, hearing, memory
Part of the parietal lobe Sensory information comes in
genetic because it tends to run in families; boys 4.5 times more likely than girls; if one identical twin has it - -the other one will have it about 36% to 95% of the time, less for non-identical twin 0% to 31%We thought that mercury which is a preservative in the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine caused it – but more research found this is not a cause.
Physiology = function 17 Different Brain Structures Human brains are bi-lateral Closer to Spinal Cord more primitive function
Made of 3 parts: Medulla Oblongata Pons Midbrain 2 roles: Regulates circulation, breathing, digestion etc Routes sensory information
Three Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Embryonic Fetal
child’s body produces thick, sticky mucus that clog the lungs making the child vulnerable to pulmonary infections.
serve two important functions: They help us organize the knowledge that we already have. They help us make predictions about new information that we then can investigate and test Theories have high explanatory power
Sponge Thinking Style
Consists of absorbing information—it is a “passive” approach You can know lots about the world this way; but it is passive and requires little mental effort It is quick and easy; but the problem here is that it does not advise you about which information to reject or believe
BF Skinner a voluntary response is strengthened by its association with positive consequences.
Serotonin is used to transmit messages between nerve cells, it is thought to be active in constricting smooth muscles, and it contributes to wellbeing and happiness, among other things. As the precursor for melatonin, it helps regulate the body's sleep-wake cycles and the internal clock.
It is thought to play a role in appetite, the emotions, and motor, cognitive, and autonomic functions. However, it is not known exactly if serotonin affects these directly, or if it has an overall role in co-ordinating the nervous system
processes and stores memory
Treatment includes medications and psychosocial or psychiatric rehabilitation programs.These programs emphasize skill building in areas such as social skills, life skills, symptom management, problem solving, community integration, vocational rehabilitation.
Cerebral Palsy Cause
Caused by abnormal development of the brain or damage to it, either prenatally, during birth, or after birth up to age 3.About 800,000 children and adults are diagnosed and the prevalence rate is largely unchanged over the past 40 years.
Inability to remember the name of common objects
Bandura Social-Cognitive Theory
Learning through imitation (modeling) Differs from behaviorism in looking at inner mental processes (learning occurs from watching others (social) and is also processed in the mind which is cognitive) Bandura’s classic experiment (Bobo doll experiment)
capital of iceland religion: Lutheran Church of Iceland (80%)
Errors of Perception
faulty ways of seeing our reality; my thinking is better than your thinking; pretending to know; being resistant to change; either/or thinking (creating binaries)
contributes to emotions and moods, fight/flight response
Diagnosis requires 2 or more of the following symptoms:Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior (lack of reaction to environment), negative symptomsThese must be present for at least one month Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, positive and negative symptomsSymptoms often appear in late adolescence or early adulthood; in rare cases, an early-onset form may develop earlier.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Degree of Impairment: Mild to SeverePervasive developmental disorder that is linked with brain function.
about 1% of the populationIt is related to structural and functional differences in many regions of the brain.
Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (4-6)
Woman feels the baby moving (“quickening”)Activity level prenatally predicts activity level of the baby after birth
What neurons and their synaptic connections make up
Jewish-American Anthropologist and Author. Wrote The Denial of Death. Theorized that fear of death motivated human behavior. We then commit heroic acts to overcome this fear of death
Critical thinking is a self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, corrective thinking process that deepens one’s understanding of self and the world.
Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (0-3)
Morning sickness due to hormonal changesFatigue; breast tenderness
Homeostasis - body temp, circadian rhythm, etc
there is a single chromosome in the 23rd position in a female.
Missing X chromosome in women
Symptoms: Short stature, webbing of the neck, lack of development of ovaries resulting in lack of sexual maturation at puberty
Function: Integration Made of neurons and synapses
Sending off hormones
Emotional Center Made up of Amygdala Hippocampus Thalamus Hypothalamus
Connects both hemispheres of the cerebrum
administering a negative consequence or taking away a positive reinforcement to reduce the likelihood of an undesirable behavior.
Errors of Judgment
overgeneralizing or stereotyping; making hasty conclusions; unwarranted assumptions (if it’s in print it must be true); failure to make distinctions; distinguishing between the person and the idea (if a celebrity or expert says it – it must be true)
coordinate and regulate muscular activity
How long did it take the rover to get to mars
Oral: birth to 18 months; child gets stimulation from mouth, lips; if fixated at this stage one can smoke as adult or overeat; create this by parents always feeding child Anal: 18 months to 3 years; please center is anus; potty training is central now; child learns to control bodily urges; fixation here results in being over-c0ntrolled like anla compulsive; someone obsesses about everything being in it’s proper place. Phallic: (3-6 years) focus of pleasure is on the penis for boys, clitoris for girls, the “family romance” boys imagine marrying their mother and girls marrying their father Latency: (6-12 years) sexual drive goes underground and gives energy to learning to be an adult, schooling; focus on peers now, Genital (12 and older) adult sexuality
One of the most famous neurologists of all time. Most well known for collecting odd case studies of his clients in books.
80% of brain. Made up of different lobes
(2 weeks - 2months) Ectoderm: skin, sense organs, brain, and spinal cord. Mesoderm: muscles, blood, bones, and circulatory system. Endoderm: respiratory system, digestive system, liver, and pancreas. Placenta brings nutrients and oxygen to embryo through umbilical cord and carrying away fetal waste.Organogenesis: development of internal organs; heart begins to beat; this is a critical period of development; anything that causes damage is severe and irreversibleCephalocaudal direction of development; head downUltrasound can be done between 6-10 weeks to see if baby growing at expected rate
a stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated
Sends motor signals back out
lSingle gene disorders: genetic disorders caused by inheriting pair of recessive genes or mutations
lMutations occur as cells divide and some of the bases that give instructions to create proteins are out of order or missing.
lIn Cystic Fibrosis there’s a missing sequence (deletion) in a specific gene.
lMany genetic disorders are coded on recessive genes – but most of the time the recessive gene is paired with a dominant gene that does not carry this disorder so the info. On the dominant gene protects the person from developing the disorder.
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages (First two)
trust vs. mistrust: achieve trust if caregivers are consistent and responsive to child; otherwise child develops mistrust autonomy vs. shame and doubt: child becomes more independent and has self control– otherwise he/she has low self-confidence
Inventor of the Polio Vaccine
Jonas Edward Salk
First Stage of Labor
Early labor: contractions are usually not painful, cervix begins to thin out and dilate.First time mothers the labor lasts 10-20 hours; contractions last 30-60 seconds and come every 5-20 minutesActive labor: contractions become longer, stronger, and more frequent; cervix has dilated to 4 cms., lasts on average 3 to 8 hours; if contractions last I minute and come every 5 minutes female needs to go to hospital; she may need pain medication or will use relaxation strategies or half or women will get an epidural which decreases sensation in lower half of body; this phase lasts 3-8 hours.Transition: contractions come in rapid succession and last up to 90 seconds each, lasts 15 minutes to 3 hours, ends when cervix has dilated to 10 cms.; this is when cervix dilates to 7 centimeters
An extra X chromosome in men
Symptoms: Inferility, small genitals, enlarged breasts, reduced facial, armpit, and pubic hair; possible autoimmune disorders
lchild cannot digest a common protein in the human diet and this can result in intellectual disability.
Autism Brain Scans
Brain imaging shows enlargement of the amygdala which is involved in emotional expression.We also look at brain volume and it’s larger in Autistic kids.Functional Differences shows it takes more effort for kids with Autism to interpret a speaker’s intention during social communication – means there’s hyperactivation in certain parts of brain. Autistic kids may have deficits in working memory that affects language skills and cannot analyze emotions of facial expressions; may have difficulty differentiating objects from people. Autistic kids may have less efficient connections between neurons.
the process by which a behavior stops when it receives no response from the environment
Genetic: If one identical twin is schizophrenic there is a 40%-60% chance the other will be Schizophrenic.A fraternal twin has only a 5% to 15% chance of sharing this condition with the sibling. Prenatal disruption of brain development by factors such as the mother’s experience of starvation or influenza can increase the risk of Schizophrenia. Adolescent marijuana use can increase the risk for Sz for some teens who are more vulnerable because of a genetic predisposition , a dysfunctional environment.
Bearing Strait Swimmer
0-2 weeksFertilizationCell divisionCreation of the blastulaImplantation in the uterine wallOvum (egg) released during ovulation; if sperm carries a Y chromosome in 23rd position you have male; if carries X have female.Blastocyst becomes embryo. After cells proliferate become blastocystAbout 12% of of women are infertileAbout 20% of females don’t have their first child until age 35 or older; women waiting longer to have a child.
Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (7-9)
Fatigue and discomfortFetus “drops” to get into position for birth
reinforcing behaviors to become progressively more like the desired behavior. How do parents shape behavior of their children?