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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (81):
1

Fetal Stage

(2 months - birth)Sexual differentiation: in male at 9 weeks testes begin to produce male hormone called androgen and in female genitalia continues developing and reproductive system developing.Hormones also influence development of the brainbegins at 10 weeks; fetus braeathes in and expel amniotic fluid; at 12 weeks female feels movement; at 20 weeks moves lots and after this point fetal movement declines; at 32 weeks fetus spends 90% of its time sleepingPrenatal “breathing” 

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Freud's Address

Berggasse 19, Vienna

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's theory focused on unconscious urges that move the person through a series of stages that shape our personality

4

Third Stage of Labor

uterus contracts to expel placenta and no pain now and this stage lasts 5-10 minutes; if an episiotomy done then doctor closes the incision.

5

Myelin Sheath

lFor neurons to work efficiently, they need to be coated   with a fatty substance known as myelin.

lMyelination continues throughout childhood and adolescence.

l

lIt wraps around the nerves to ensure the message is sent along a neuron.

l

lMyelination begins in the lower centers at the base of the brain and continues to the higher centers of the cortex.

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Second Stage of Labor

when cervix dilates to 10 centimeters; uterine contractions push baby down birth canal; about 11% of vaginal deliveries involve an episiotomy à surgical incision  from back of vagina to anus to allow baby to exit the birth canal without tearing tissue

Baby out – one shoulder at a time; baby’s airway cleared, baby placed on mother’s stomach and umbilical cord clamped and cut – sometimes by the dad.

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Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors

Risk Factors: premature birth, low birth weight. Maternal exposure to to toxins or infections, lack of oxygen during birth.This condition does not progressively get worse; we want to intervene early.Medications help control seizures and muscle spasms, physical therapy helps.A new medication might help by regrowing myelin on nerve cells in the brain. A lack of oxygen disrupts the nerve cell’s ability to create myelin – so cells die and this can result in cerebral palsy.

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Agnosia

Agnosia is a neurological disorder that results in an inability to recognize objects (such as an apple or a key), persons, smells, or sounds despite normally functioning senses (such as visual or auditory). These deficits are not due to memory loss.

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Albert Camus

French-Algerian novelist, essayist, and philosopher. Wrote The Stranger

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Tay Sachs

lTay-Sachs disease is a rare disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme that helps break down fatty substances. These fatty substances, called gangliosides, build up to toxic levels in the child's brain and affect the function of the nerve cells. As the disease progresses, the child loses muscle control. Eventually, this leads to blindness, paralysis and death. Occurs in: Eastern and Central European Jewish communities (Ashkenazi Jews

lSymptoms are loss of motor skills, including turning over, crawling and sitting ; Exaggerated reactions when the baby hears loud noises; Seizures; Vision and hearing loss; Muscle weakness; Movement problems

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Errors in Reaction

don’t attack the person making the assertion – just evaluate their idea; if you can’t defend your assertion – don’t shift the burden on the person challenging you to prove their point

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Panning for Gold Thinking Style

Where you ask questions about what you read and hear It is an “interactive” approach; you interact and are challenged with the material presented to you

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Thalamus

Router - sorts data

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Freud’s view of the three parts of personality

Id: operates on the pleasure principle (present at birth, instinctual drives, infant wants when they want it; seeks immediate gratification) Ego: operates on the reality principle (child now more aware of reality of world; ego helps child negotiate between basic drives and the real world; ego represses instincts) Superego: operates on the morality principle (between ages 5 and 7 child learns moral principles)

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Trimsomy 21

Down Syndrome

Extra 21st chromosome 

Symptoms: intellectual disability; typical facial features; poor muscle tone, possible problems with heart, digestion, and hearing

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M.I.S.T

Mentally Incompotent to Stand Trial

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Dopamine

neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them. 

 

Dopamine deficiency results in Parkinson's Disease,

 

and people with low dopamine activity may be more prone to addiction

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Empathy

The capacity to take the role of the other

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Three Types of Errors in Critical Thinking

Errors of Perception Errors of Judgment Errors of Reaction

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Autism 3 Distinctive Behaviors

difficulties with social interactionproblems with verbal and nonverbal communicationrepetitive, compulsive behavior or interests, restrictive behavior

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Parietal Lobe

Dealing with and reacting to the environment

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Cerebral Palsy

a group of brain based disorders affecting movement, balance and posture, speech, coordination.

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Basal Ganglia

made up of nuclei controls motor control

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Temporal Lobe

Language, hearing, memory

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Somatosensory Cortex

Part of the parietal lobe Sensory information comes in

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Autism Causes

genetic because it tends to run in families; boys 4.5 times more likely than girls; if one identical twin has it - -the other one will have it about 36% to 95% of the time, less for non-identical twin 0% to 31%We thought that mercury which is a preservative in the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine caused it – but more research found this is not a cause.

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Brain Overview

Physiology = function 17 Different Brain Structures Human brains are bi-lateral Closer to Spinal Cord more primitive function

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Brain Stem

Made of 3 parts: Medulla Oblongata Pons Midbrain 2 roles: Regulates circulation, breathing, digestion etc Routes sensory information

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Frontal Lobe

Executive Functioning

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Three Stages of Prenatal Development

Germinal Embryonic Fetal

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Cystic Fibrosis

child’s body produces thick, sticky mucus that clog the lungs making the child vulnerable to pulmonary infections.

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Theory

serve two important functions: They help us organize the knowledge that we already have. They help us make predictions about new information that we then can investigate and test Theories have high explanatory power

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Sponge Thinking Style

Consists of absorbing information—it is a “passive” approach You can know lots about the world this way; but it is passive and requires little mental effort It is quick and easy; but the problem here is that it does not advise you about which information to reject or believe

34

Operant Conditioning

BF Skinner a voluntary response is strengthened by its association with positive consequences.

35

Seratonin

Serotonin is used to transmit messages between nerve cells, it is thought to be active in constricting smooth muscles, and it contributes to wellbeing and happiness, among other things. As the precursor for melatonin, it helps regulate the body's sleep-wake cycles and the internal clock.

It is thought to play a role in appetite, the emotions, and motor, cognitive, and autonomic functions. However, it is not known exactly if serotonin affects these directly, or if it has an overall role in co-ordinating the nervous system

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Hippocampus

processes and stores memory

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Schizophrenia Treatment

Treatment includes medications and psychosocial or psychiatric rehabilitation programs.These programs emphasize skill building in areas such as social skills, life skills, symptom management, problem solving, community integration, vocational rehabilitation.

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Cerebral Palsy Cause

Caused by abnormal development of the brain or damage to it, either prenatally, during birth, or after birth up to age 3.About 800,000 children and adults are diagnosed and the prevalence rate is largely unchanged over the past 40 years.

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Anomia

Inability to remember the name of common objects

40

Bandura Social-Cognitive Theory

Learning through imitation (modeling) Differs from behaviorism in looking at inner mental processes (learning occurs from watching others (social) and is also processed in the mind which is cognitive) Bandura’s classic experiment (Bobo doll experiment)

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Reykjavik

capital of iceland religion: Lutheran Church of Iceland (80%)

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Errors of Perception

faulty ways of seeing our reality; my thinking is better than your thinking; pretending to know; being resistant to change; either/or thinking (creating binaries)

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Amygdala

contributes to emotions and moods, fight/flight response

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Schizophrenia Diagnosis

Diagnosis requires 2 or more of the following symptoms:Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior (lack of reaction to environment), negative symptomsThese must be present for at least one month Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, positive and negative symptomsSymptoms often appear in late adolescence or early adulthood; in rare cases, an early-onset form may develop earlier.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Degree of Impairment: Mild to SeverePervasive developmental disorder that is linked with brain function.

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Occipital Lobe

Vision

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Schizophrenia

about 1% of the populationIt is related to structural and functional differences in many regions of the brain.

48

Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (4-6)

Woman feels the baby moving (“quickening”)Activity level prenatally predicts activity level of the baby after birth

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grey matter

What neurons and their synaptic connections make up

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Ernest Becker

Jewish-American Anthropologist and Author. Wrote The Denial of Death. Theorized that fear of death motivated human behavior. We then commit heroic acts to overcome this fear of death

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Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, corrective thinking process that deepens one’s understanding of self and the world.

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Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (0-3)

Morning sickness due to hormonal changesFatigue; breast tenderness

53

Hypothalamus

Homeostasis - body temp, circadian rhythm, etc

54

Turner's Syndrome

there is a single chromosome in the 23rd position in a female.

 

Missing X chromosome in women

Symptoms: Short stature, webbing of the neck, lack of development of ovaries resulting in lack of sexual maturation at puberty

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Cerebrum

Function: Integration Made of neurons and synapses

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Posterior Pituitary

Sending off hormones

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Limbic System

Emotional Center Made up of Amygdala Hippocampus Thalamus Hypothalamus

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Corpus Callosum

Connects both hemispheres of the cerebrum

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Punishment

administering a negative consequence or taking away a positive reinforcement to reduce the likelihood of an undesirable behavior.

60

Errors of Judgment

overgeneralizing or stereotyping; making hasty conclusions; unwarranted assumptions (if it’s in print it must be true); failure to make distinctions; distinguishing between the person and the idea (if a celebrity or expert says it – it must be true)

61

Cerebellum

coordinate and regulate muscular activity

62

How long did it take the rover to get to mars

8 months

63

Psychoanalytic Stages

Oral: birth to 18 months; child gets stimulation from mouth, lips; if fixated at this stage one can smoke as adult or overeat; create this by parents always feeding child Anal: 18 months to 3 years; please center is anus; potty training is central now; child learns to control bodily urges; fixation here results in being over-c0ntrolled like anla compulsive; someone obsesses about everything being in it’s proper place. Phallic: (3-6 years) focus of pleasure is on the penis for boys, clitoris for girls, the “family romance” boys imagine marrying their mother and girls marrying their father Latency: (6-12 years) sexual drive goes underground and gives energy to learning to be an adult, schooling; focus on peers now, Genital (12 and older) adult sexuality

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Oliver Sacks

One of the most famous neurologists of all time. Most well known for collecting odd case studies of his clients in books.

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Cerebral cortex

80% of brain. Made up of different lobes

66

Embryonic Stage

(2 weeks - 2months) Ectoderm: skin, sense organs, brain, and spinal cord. Mesoderm: muscles, blood, bones, and circulatory system. Endoderm: respiratory system, digestive system, liver, and pancreas. Placenta brings nutrients and oxygen to embryo through umbilical cord and carrying away fetal waste.Organogenesis: development of internal organs; heart begins to beat; this is a critical period of development; anything that causes damage is severe and irreversibleCephalocaudal direction of development; head  downUltrasound can be done between 6-10 weeks to see if baby growing at expected rate

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Reinforcement

a stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated

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Motor Cortex

Sends motor signals back out

69

Genetic Disorders

lSingle gene disorders: genetic disorders caused by inheriting pair of recessive genes or mutations

lMutations occur as cells divide and some of the bases that give instructions to create proteins are out of order or missing.

lIn Cystic Fibrosis there’s a missing sequence (deletion) in a specific gene.

lMany genetic disorders are coded on recessive genes – but most of the time the recessive gene is paired with a dominant gene that does not carry this disorder so the info. On the dominant gene protects the person from developing the disorder.

70

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages (First two)

trust vs. mistrust: achieve trust if caregivers are consistent and responsive to child; otherwise child develops mistrust autonomy vs. shame and doubt: child becomes more independent and has self control– otherwise he/she has low self-confidence

71

Inventor of the Polio Vaccine

Jonas Edward Salk

72

First Stage of Labor

Early labor: contractions are usually not painful, cervix begins to thin out and dilate.First time mothers the labor lasts 10-20 hours; contractions last 30-60 seconds and come every 5-20 minutesActive labor: contractions become longer, stronger, and more frequent; cervix has dilated to 4 cms., lasts on average 3 to 8 hours; if contractions last I minute and come every 5 minutes female needs to go to hospital; she may need pain medication or will use relaxation strategies or half or women will get an epidural which decreases sensation in lower half of body; this phase lasts 3-8 hours.Transition: contractions come in rapid succession and last up to 90 seconds each, lasts 15 minutes to 3 hours, ends when cervix has dilated to 10 cms.; this is when cervix dilates to 7 centimeters

73

Klinefelter Syndrome

An extra X chromosome in men

Symptoms: Inferility, small genitals, enlarged breasts, reduced facial, armpit, and pubic hair; possible autoimmune disorders 

74

PKU

lchild cannot digest a common protein in the human diet and this can result in intellectual disability.

75

Autism Brain Scans

Brain imaging shows enlargement of the amygdala which is involved in emotional expression.We also look at brain volume and it’s larger in Autistic kids.Functional Differences shows it takes more effort for kids with Autism to interpret a speaker’s intention during social communication – means there’s hyperactivation in certain parts of brain. Autistic kids may have deficits in working memory that affects language skills and cannot analyze emotions of facial expressions; may have difficulty differentiating objects from people. Autistic kids may have less efficient connections between neurons.

76

Extinction

the process by which a behavior stops when it receives no response from the environment

77

Schizophrenia Causes

Genetic: If one identical twin is schizophrenic there is a 40%-60% chance the other will be Schizophrenic.A fraternal twin has only a 5% to 15% chance of sharing this condition with the sibling. Prenatal disruption of brain development by factors such as the mother’s experience of starvation or influenza can increase the risk of Schizophrenia. Adolescent marijuana use can increase the risk for Sz for some teens who are more vulnerable because of a genetic predisposition , a dysfunctional environment.

78

Bearing Strait Swimmer

Lynne Cox

79

Germinal stage

0-2 weeksFertilizationCell divisionCreation of the blastulaImplantation in the uterine wallOvum (egg) released during ovulation; if sperm carries a Y chromosome in 23rd position you have male; if carries X have female.Blastocyst becomes embryo. After cells proliferate become blastocystAbout 12% of of women are infertileAbout 20% of females don’t have their first child until age 35 or older; women waiting longer to have a child.

80

Three Trimesters of Pregnancy (7-9)

Fatigue and discomfortFetus “drops” to get into position for birth

81

Shaping

reinforcing behaviors to become progressively more like the desired behavior. How do parents shape behavior of their children?