Flashcards in Christainity Practices Deck (70):
What is meant by communal worship ?
- When Christians go to worship in church with other people who make up the congregation
- benefit from experience of worshipping with others
What are the 3 basic forms of communal worship ?
Describe Liturgical worship
- formal in organisation and use set patterns for service
- congregation respond to person leading the service by reading set words from service sheet/book
- usually same every time
- RCC , orthodox + COFE
Why is the symbolic use of colour important in COFE and RCC ?
- tied in with the church year , during which different parts of Jesus life and work are remembered
- colour of vestments that priest express character of what it is being celebrated / remembered
What are the two mains types of services in liturgical worship ?
- Eucharist service
- Service of the Word
Describe the Eucharistic service
- focuses on the Eucharist , celebration and remembrance of Jesus suffering and death
- Last meal with his disciples , before his crucifixion, Jesus broke loaf of bread + poured wine
- congregation receive bread and wine = Jesus body + blood
- readings from Bibles . hymns , short sermon
Describe the service of the Word
- does not include Eucharist ( not bread or wine )
- focus on bible readings and the sermon
- sermon will be longer and more developed than Eucharist service
Describe how Anglican worship
- generally use the Book of Common prayer or Common worship liturgy books
- The Books of Common sets out the words of the service + gives directions to worshippers and minister
- hymns will be sung
- people stand for the reading of the creed and Gospel
Describe the Roman Catholic worship
- use an order of service in book called a missal
- similar structure to COFE
- believe in transubstantiation ( transformation of the bread and wine into body + blood of Christ )
- anglicans dont agree ^
- Catholic’s believe Each EU service Jesus sacrifice is truly recreated at altar
- Anglicans believe Jesus death to have been a single event in time , never repeated
Describe a Quaker meeting
- call their worship service a “ meeting for worship “
- people enter meeting room and take a seat in silence
- silence = able to reflect , thank and listen ( closer to God )
- no songs , set prayers etc. ,
- believe in equality so no ministers anyone can contribute ( ministry )
- Bibles available , and small booklet called “ advices and Queries “
- ends when Quakers shake hands
Describe Greek Orthodox worship
- Eucharist is called Divine Liturgy ( hour and a half )
- Little entrance = book of the gospels carried in sanctuary
- Great entrance = bread and wine are carried to the altar for the Prayer of Consecration + holy communion
- 1st section of service : Liturgy of the word followed by Liturgy of the Faithful
- Nicene creed , hyms + reciting of Lord Prayer , bread and wine are consecrated
- emphasise role of Holy Spirit
- bread is soaked in wine + distributed to believers , bread that is blessed = congregation and non-orthodox believers share in this ( Christian fellowship)
Describe Methodist worship
- similar to Anglican Church , but may follow a less structured service
- publishes own hymn book
- Eucharist = the service of the table or communion
- open communion , all welcome as it’s Christ’s table
- led by minister
- Wine distributed , small circular waters used instead of bread
Describe Non-liturgical services
- more spontaneous , little pre-organised structure
- minister leads service , but anyone might be allowed to pray in own way
- Protestant + non-conformist churches eg. Baptist , Methodist
- ensures they don’t become stuck in a worship ‘rut’ , always saying without true meaning
- focus on service = reinforces importance of the bibles as the authoritative Word of God
- sermon is the focus of service , understand message of Bible , word of God and application to daily lives
Describe charismatic worship
- Charismatic Christians believe they receive similar gifts of the Holy Spirit
-eg. speaking in tongues , prophecy and healing
-does not follow a set pattern, includes dancing , clapping and people raising hands
- open to Holy Spirit + led by him, during service
- person in congregation fields it’s right moment for them to say a special praye r/hymn of praise /silent reflection
Describe individual worship
- spend time praying in their own private worship
- develop close + personal relationship with God
-seeks Gods specific guidance, help and encouragement ( challenges ) for own lives
- may respond to God with personal thanks + praise as they are aware God is working on their lives
- Pray to God = Christians reliance on him will increase , faith will be deepened as they seek his will
- God hears and responds to prayers
What are sacraments ?
- ritual which the grace or blessing of God can be received
- In Anglican Book of Common Prayer , sacrament is explained as an outward + visible sign of inward/spiritual grace given to Christians
- RCC , performed by priest and according to agreed practice of church , gives grace of God
Difference in the belief of sacraments
- RCC believe in all 7 sacraments
- Orthodox regard 7 as sacraments but sometimes call it “ holy mysteries “
- Protestant + COFE only 2 sacraments = Eucharist and Baptism ( direct link to Jesus - sacraments of the gospel )
- Baptist’s prefer to call sacraments ordinances
Difference between transubstantiation and consubstantiation
- TS ; believed by RCC , bread and wine are actually transformed into Jesus’s body and blood , even though appearance and taste doesn’t change
- CS ; believed by COFE , Jesus is believed to be spiritually present in bread and wine , as sacrifice is celebrated
Why is the Eucharist important for Christians ?
- reminds them of the sacrifice of a Jesus and salvation they have received
- brings them closer as a community
- ritual established by Jesus hence shows believer is obeying his command
- May be feel better prepared to deal with things that happen in life
What is baptism ?
- symbolises a person’s admission into the Christian church ( full member of community )
- most denominations, must be baptised to share in the Eucharist
- isn’t just a symbolical removal of sin , causes a real transformation by washing away sin
What is infant baptism ( christening ) ?
- RCC , orthodox + COFE
- ritual of baptising baby that allows it to receive Gods blessing , parents make promise to raise child as Christian
- followed by ritual of confirmation
- inward effect upon child , God’s spirit beginning to work in their life
Which denominations follow Believers baptism and why ?
- non conformist denominations such as Baptist + Pentecostal
- emphasis placed on the person making a conscious decision when baptised
- grace of God received as a expression of faith rather than performance of ritual
- Baby can’t choose to be baptised , hence must be baptised as Adults
- New Testament points to Adult baptism of Jesus , needs to be a believer
Why don’t some denominations such as Quakers and the Salvation Army practice baptism ?
Receive God’s France inwardly no need for outward ceremony
How is Prayer like in congregational worship ?
- Prayer led by one or several people
- congregation may be asked to take part through set responses
- simply listen to prayers and confirm agreement by saying “Amen”
- any member who wishes to stand up and say prayer aloud
- silent prayer , period of reflection , God may speak to them in some way
Difference between set prayers and informal prayer ?
- set prayers : help worshippers express their thankfulness , requests to God , sometimes hard to believers to find words they want to express , this helps them
- informal prayers ( extempore ) : freedom to relate to a God in a unique, individual way , intimate way of engaging in conversation with God
What does the Lord prayer include ?
- confession of things Christians done wrong
- concern for others
- supplication ( asking for something special for themselves or others )
What are the 4 types of prayer ? Give a brief description of each
- ADORATION : focus on God’s character and adore him , Christians able to keep their own lives in perspective , helps geo in sense or security in his safe keeping
- CONFESSION : bring before God anything they have done wrong / failed to do , seeking God’s forgiveness , believer consider how they need to change
- SUPPLICATIONS + INTERCESSION : asking for help , eg. in a challenging situation , asking for God’s healing or intervention is struggling relationship to bring peace , not a wish list
- THANKSGIVING - Gods has plan for their good + in hard situation , they are thankful , helps them remain grateful to Gods provision , recognise God in all aspects of their lives
What is ‘ grace ‘ ?
- thanking God before a meal
- Christians recognise all they have received , especially food they are about to consume , is because of Gods goodness to them
- Some churches “ The grace “ is a prayer
- Methodist Church close with the saying of the Grace , it acknowledges Gods love and generosity to his piepte
What does it mean to pray in spirits ?
- inspired prayer led by the Gods Holy Spirit within the believer
- understood as praying in tongues , usually private
-unique language given to belieber by God , enable to praise God Human language can’t
- no sense in terms on human language
- strengthened by Spirit, bring believer close to god
What is meditational prayers ?
- believe focuses on stillness upon God
- Bible passage may be used
- Jesus spent nights alone in prayer , Christians follow this example
- sense of particular closeness to God
- God will reveal himself directly to them
What is a pilgrimage ? Why is it important ?
- physical journey that will taken a person to a place of religious significance
- step outside of the daily pattern of their life , wholly devote time to God
- find own spiritual life benefits , helps bring closer to God
- physically demanding challenge , better understanding of themselves and need to God
- intensely spiritual experience , real sense of awe/wonder or a fresh revelation of God
What’s significant about Lourdes ?
- 1858 , 14 year old girl claimed to have visions of Virgin Mary near Lourdes
- in these visions , virgin predicted that a water string would appear in the grotto and it did
- spring had healing powers , RCC built near
- over 7000 healing have been registered , 69 confirmed by church as miracles
- seek physical but also spiritual healing
- faith and relationship with God is strengthened and restored
What’s significant about Jerusalem ?
- where Jesus lives towards the end of his life + where he died, buried and seen alive after resurrection
- helps Bibles come to life and reflect more deeply on faith
- Church of Holy Sepulchre , build over the Spot where Jesus tomb
- Stone of unction : Jesus body laid and washed after crucifixion
What’s significant about Walsingham ?
- Lady of Manor had vision of Virgin Mary’s home in Narazeth
- Virgin Mary Home built according to how she saw it in her vision
- 1169 , Monks became responsible for the care of this site ( England’s Nazareth ) + became a shrine ( many miracles )
- Every day , Eucharist services + evening prayers
What’s significant about Rome ?
- Vatican City , headquarter of RCC
- St Peters church , largest Christian church
- Myth , while fleeing persecution in Rome , Peter had a vision of Jesus ‘ going to be crucified again ‘
- Peter ashamed and realised he should not flee
- returned to a Rome and requested to be crucified upside down , not same as Jesus
- home of Pope , the head of RCC
What does Gospels of Mathew and Luke consist of ?
Accounts of Jesus birth
- Mathew ; records of coming of wise men
- Luke ; tells of angels appearing to ordinary shepherds in the fields declaring Jesus birth to them
How do Christians celebrate Christmas ?
- celebration of the season of Advent ( begins on 4 Sunday before 25 ) marks start of liturgical church year in RCC and Anglican
- Churches May have advent wreaths with 4 candles , each Sunday one candle will be lit
- waiting time used to get ready spiritual for Christmas, giving time to prayer and seeking God’s forgiveness
- Midnight on Christmas Eve , they go to a special service of Eucharist ‘ might night mass ‘
- Christmas Day , services that celebrate Jesus birth such as carols l readings from gospels
How Orthdox church celebrate Christmas differently ?
- Christmas celebrated on or near 7 January due to historical differences in the way calendars were calculated
- fast before Christmas as preparation to celebrate Jesus birth
- fasting helps shift their focus from themselves to others , less time worrying about food , spend more time on Prayer
- attend a special church Liturgy in Christmas Day on 7th January
Why is Christmas important ?
- celebration of Jesus incarnation , allowed way for humans to be reconciled with God
- birth gives humanity hope for a new beginning, possibility for restored relationship with God + eternal life after death
-Jesus will return once more to Earth ‘ Paraousia ‘ hence must live as Jesus commanded them to
- time to reflect on the need for peace in the world , remembering and helping those less fortunate ( Salvation Army very active )
Describe the celebration of Easter
- takes place at end of Holy Week
- time for reflection and
celebration for all Christian denominations
- through death and resurrection, Jesus brought about human salvation and gave Christian hope for eternal life with God
- grow relationship with God , reminded of the grace and mercy of God
What is Lent ?
- Orthodox , RCC + COFE
- lead up to Easter , 40
day period of fasting
- recalling the gospel accounts of when , after his baptism , Jesus spent 40 days fasting in the desert
- Tempted by Satan to give up fast , but resisted temptations
- Christians show they too will try to resist temptation
What happens during Ash Wednesday?
- marks the start of Lent
- sign of cross marked on foreheads with ashes
- visual reminder to focus on suffering death and resurrection of Jesus
What is Palm Sunday ?
- Start of Holy Week , recalls the arrival on Jesus into Jerusalem as he rides a donkey
- Crowd welcomed him , waving palm branches which symbolises victory ( Messiah )
- welcome upset Jewish leaders as they’d not believe Jesus was Messiah and concerned about his popularity
- small crosses made of palm leaves given : palms believed waves + death n cross at same week
- Christians reflect upon their own faithfulness to Jesus
What is Maundy Thursday ?
- remember Jesus last supper with his disciples ( 12) , he washed his disciples feet , established Eucharist + predicted to be betrayed by one of the disciples
- RCC - minister washes the feet of 12 people , other churches minister wash feet of the congregation
- communion service , bread/wine
-Monarch takes part in the ceremony of the Royal Maundy , occurs at cathedral , money given to senior citizens
- reminder Jesus came to service and we should follow his example
- Jesus washing feet = servant role hence Christians should remain humble and willing to serve others
- great thankfulness by Christians to God
What is good Friday ? How is it celebrated ?
- remember Jesus crucifixion
- Special services to meditate on Jesus death and the sin of humanity
- main service ‘ service of cross ‘ reading accounts from gospels of Jesus , crucifixion, singing hymns
- worshippers move around church stop at each of the 14 stations of the cross and pray
- passion plays , play about Jesus suffering and death
- remove all decoration and signs of colour
Why is Good Friday significant ?
- Without Jesus death the debt of Sin owned by Human to God will still be unpaid
- greatest act of mercy to humanity , sacrifice of his own son of cross
- consider depth of Gods love for humans , reflect on own life and sinfulness , seeking God’s forgiveness
-Gods understand human suffering because he suffered on the cross as Jesus , hence God understands human suffering and can comfort them
What happens on Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday ?
- Joy of Jesus resurrection and victory over sin celebrated
- COFE , RCC keep an Easter Vigil on Saturday evening
- congregation meet outside church and a bonfire is lit , special candle called Pachal candle , is brought out
- Easter Sunday , Cqndles / banners put back up + floral displays
- service full of praise as hymns are sung celebrating Jesus triumphs over death
- Confirms the truth of their hope of an eternal life , thankful for God
Explain the symbolism of infant baptism ?
- RCC , COFE - child having water from the font poured or sprinkled over head
- Orthodox- Child is immersed into water in the baptismal bowl / font
Leaving behind life of sin + entering ne Christian life , water = cleansed of original sin + beginning of new life
- RCC - rub blessed oil called Chrism onto child’s forehead = coming on the Holy Spirit , work in his/her life
- priest may light a candle from Paschal candle and hand to parents , spiritual darkness to light
- Parents expected to bring child yo in Christian Faith
What is confirmation ?
- children who have been baptised as babies may choose to may their own decision about belonging to Christian Faith
-fulfils promises made by parents
- RCC , COFE , Methodist church
- confirm their own personal faith and belief
- series of classes run by church , clear on decision they make
- during service , candidates answer questions parents first answered on their behalf
- kneel at the altar rail , special + sacred area , Bishop places his hand upon candidates head and pray for Holy Spirit in them
- chrism oil on forehead , symbol of richness of the Holy Spirit
What is a service of dedication ?
- Baptist church ( non-conformist churches )
- gives thanks to God for the birth of the baby
- parents and the congregation make promises to commit to bring the child up in the Christian Faith
- prayers are said , good parents , asking God for his guidance and wisdom in their parent hood
What is believers baptism
- symbolic of individual free will choice to become a Christian
- asks God for forgiveness of sind’s and publicly commits him or herself to follow Christian Faith
- Testimony - short account of how they became a Christian
- believe stands about waist deep in pool of water in church / sea
- wear white = purity and forgiveness for sins
- asked by minister to proclaim their repentance of sin and commitment
- minister lays belieber fully back under the water , removal of sin
- brought back up = being brought into new life with faith in God , presence of Holy Spirit
What are the purpose of marriage vows ?
- give encouragement to stick to their original commitment to one another
- reassurance that partner is committed to them and and promised to be there for them until they die
- guidance on how to relate to their spouse
What is the purpose of the minister explaining the purpose of marriage ?
- ensures the couple and witness understand the meaning of ceremony
- service is not an act that couple make before family , but in front of God
- reminds Bride and Groom of the lifelong commitment they are about to make
What does a ring symbolise ?
- couple have made a commitment
- outward sign to others that the person is married and unavailable for a sexual or martial relationship with anyone else
Why do couples pray to God after marriage ?
- encouraged to rely on God and seek his support during married life
- God is involved in relationship from the start
- God strengthens their relationship with each other and guides them
-hymns reflect that belief that love and marriage are from God
When do couples exchanged rings in a Orthodox wedding service ?
- engagement before wedding ( betrothal ceremony )
- most rituals repeated three times represent the trinity
- rings exchanged 3 times , signifying how they will complement each other in their marriage
- hold candles in left hand , symbolise willingness to receive God’s blessings
What happens during the wedding in an Orthodox Church ?
- silver crowns called stefanas held over the heads of groom and bride
- crown represents the royalty of the marriage
- white ribbon = unity of couple
- three sips of wine from shared cup , Jesus turned water into wine at a wedding in Cana
- Cup symbolic of shared life
- follow priest as he circles the altar three times , taking first steps as a married couple
-finished with exclamation “ MAY YOU LIVE! “
What happens at a funeral service ?
- bible reading : focus on the prospect of eternal life with God after death
- eulogy : talk/speech , persons life is remembered and their achievements are acknowledged
- prayers : said for the relative / friends of the dead person , asking God to support them in their time of grief + give strength to move on
- hymns : sometimes chosen before death by the person who has died , or favourites
- requiem mass : mass for the dead
- burial/cremation : further prayers said at the graveside before final commitment statement by minister , also said as curtains shut around coffin. Committing person to God’s care
Purpose of a funeral ?
- marks the close of a human life on Earth
- serves as a reminder of the hope an afterlife with God
- thank God for the dead persons life of Earth
Describe the requiem mass ?
- Liturgy begins with the request to God to “grant them “ .
- In Greek Orthodox churches it’s the fullest form of memorial service
- Contains readings if hymns + Liturgy
- COFE doesn’t not have this (high Anglican services do )
How do church communities support families ?
- mark significant life events such as baptism + marriage
- support families in funerals
- priest might provide support to families by visiting the sick in home/hospital or offer counselling to couples
- run volunteer services to help groups such as young mother or elderly , providing them with help + advice
- involved with local charities , such as providing respite care for families who are looking after ill/dependent relatives
-service for young people , such as Sunday school , teach children about their faith + chance to socialise
What is a mission ?
- task or job that a person or organisation is given to do
- most Christians believe their mission was to take the faith to everywhere in the world and convert all people to Christianity ( Evangelism )
What do the world council of churches aim to do ?
- organisation that includes all churches in true world , except RCC
- goal of conversion , work of evangelism by helping people come to a personal faith in God
- goal of reconciliation , working to see the Christian message playing a part in all aspects of society , wider world
What is the mission of the church ?
- something to say and contribute to all parts of human activity
- starting up new churches in areas where there are none or failing ( church planting )
- Meeting , Talking and sharing views and having a dialogue with people from other religions
-Examining Each other’s faith , increases understanding and helps secure peace
- action for justice , Church finds itself with conflict with those who don’t treat people fairly
- Great Commission Jesus Gave to follower hence church do the same
What’s the meaning and significance of evangelism ?
- Archbishop of Canterbury , 2 purposes of existence of the church
- 1) worship God and the other is to make new disciples
- Evangelism : Christian Action of sharing Jesus teaching to the world and bringing opportunity of salvation for all who believe
- Evangelism starts from the point of genuine relationships with people themselves are not part of the church culture
- Jesus is perfect example of evangelism
What do Salvation Army believe about Evangelism ?
- strong tradition of evangelism
- exist to “ save souls , grow saints and serve a suffering humanity “
- Jesus disciple in a modern world , seek to make Jesus known through both its actions and its message
Examples of Christian agencies
- Cafod : Catholic agency that works in the developing world to bring hope to those in poor communities
- Christian aid : Christian development charity that works to get rid of poverty in around 50 countries
- Tear fund : similar to Christian aid
Examples of organisation that help persecuted church
- Open Doors : helps people have Access to Bibles
- Barnabas fund : charity worlds to bring hope to those Christians under persecution ( direct aid through existing churches where persecution is happening )
- The fund : publishes the cases of persecuted Christians through websites and magazine , public petitions , letter writing campaigns
Name three ecumenical communities
- Taizé in France : place where wartime enemies could put aside differences
-Iona in scotland : holy island place of Christian pilgrimage
- Corrymeela in Ireland : encourage good relation between Protestant and Roman Catholic