Chromium Flashcards Preview

Micronutrients > Chromium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chromium Deck (9)
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1

Sources & AI

Best: beef, cheese, peanuts, spices
Typical: orange and grape juice, broccoli

Bioavailability: 0.4-2.5%

25-35 ug women/men
Serum 0.5 µg/ L

2

Chromodulin

4 AA's that hold 4 chromium atoms together.

Glucose tolerance factor

3

Enhancers & Inhibitors

Enhancer: HCl, AA, picolinate (chelator/ made from niacin, protects chromium), vitamin C

Inhibitors: phytates, antiacids

4

Transport

Binds and transported via transferrin in +3 state with iron.

Can also bind to albumin.

5

Function

Facilitates insulin receptor and beta subunit.

Upregulates GLUT4 which lowers blood glucose levels

6

Chromium:
Trivalent and Hexavalent

Nutrient or industrial contaminant.

Found in air, water, soil.

Hexavalent creates radicals within body due to its +6 charge.

Antioxidants can reduce hexavalent chromium.

7

Chromium and insulin

(Increases expression of insulin receptor)

Insulin promotes chromium entry into cells via transferrin receptors.

Released chromium atoms (4) bind to apochromodulin.

Chromodulin binds to beta subunits of insulin receptor.

8

Deficiency symptoms

Only in individuals receiving TPN.

Weight loss, neuropathy, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acid concentrations.

9

Toxicity

No UL

no observed adverse effect level NOAEL = 1000 µg

Chromium picolinate 600-2400 µg associated with renal failure and Hypatia dysfunction