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Flashcards in Thiamin (B1) Deck (16)
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1

TDP/ TPP Digestion

Main phosphorylated forms. Digested before absorbed.

Active and passive digestion depending on the amount present. Thiamin transporters ThTr 1 and 2.

Any free thiamin is taken up by the liver and phosphorylated into TDP form.

2

TMP

Unphosphorylated form found in plasma.
Bound to albumin.

Absorbed by reduced folate carrier RFC.

3

Excretion

Urine as thiamin or its metabolites.

4

Storage

30 mg pool
50% in muscle

80% TDP, 10% TTP

5

Coenzyme in Krebs cycle

Synthesizes NADPH.

Decarboxylates pyruvate to form acetyl CoA and eventually lead to production of ATP.

6

Maple syrup urine disease

Build up of BCAA because they were never decarboxylated and simply built up in blood.

Inborn metabolic error from insufficient dehydrogenase enzymes to oxidize BCAA.

7

RDA

1.2 mg men
1.1 mg women

8

Deficiency

Dry: adults; chronic low thiamin intake characterized by muscle weakness, wasting, peripheral neuropathy.

Wet: cardiomegaly, tachycardia, peripheral edema.

Acute: common in infancy; vomiting, anorexia, lactic acidosis, cardiomegaly.

9

Lactic acidosis

Lack of thiamin to convert pyruvate to Acetyl CoA causes pyruvate to be converted into lactic acid instead.

10

Wernicke's encephalopathy

TTP involved as a neural transmitter.
Thiamin deficiency found more in alcoholics.

Paralysis of eye muscles, involuntary eye twitch, ataxia, confusion, memory loss.

11

Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH

Pentose phosphate used in synthesis of nucleic acids for DNA. Needed by cells that replicate rapidly such as RBC.

Generates niacin (NADPH) used as a reducing agent and recycling of vitamin C.

12

Benefits of megadosing

Alzheimer's
Alcoholism treatment
MSUD

13

ThTr1 mutation

Thiamin responsive megaloblastic anemia (Rogers syndrome).

Hearing loss, diabetes.

14

Assessment

Urine measure:
25% deficient

15

Antithiamin factors

Raw fish. Thiaminase.

Polyhydroxyphenols oxidize thiazole ring. Found in tea, coffee, blueberries, cabbage.

Made worse by magnesium and calcium.
Mad better by vitamin C.

16

Sources

Meats, pork, salmon, legumes, grains