Chromosomes and cell division Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chromosomes and cell division Deck (37):
1

Telomeres

5' - TTAGGG - 3' repeats at the end of chromosomes

2

Mitosis

two new daughter cells created

diploid cells form diploid cells

3

Meiosis

produces haploid cells from diploid cells

4

Fertilisation

produces diploid cells from haploid cells

5

how many base pairs?

3 billion

6

how many human genes

20-30000

7

how much DNA is protein coding DNA?

about 2%

8

Chromatin

DNA packaged with histone proteins

9

Histones have a .......... charge

positive

10

Histones in chromatin are packed into units called

nucleosomes

11

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridisation

12

Cell division in germ cells

meiosis

13

Oogenesis

egg formation

14

Spermatogenesis

sperm formation

15

Sperm go through more.............. than eggs do

cell divisions

(so more chance of mutation)

16

Sickle cell disorders

abnormal HB gene

17

Shaped in family history BOYS

square

18

shapes in family history GIRLS

circle

19

Cystic Fibrosis

1 in 25 in the UK are carriers

single gene (>3000 mutations)

20

Autosomal Dominant inheritance

each child would have 50% chance of inheriting the mutation

21

X-linked / sex linked inheritance

only males are affected classically

22

Multiple genes in the same molecular pathway can cause the same...

Mendelian Disease

23

Trisomy 13

Patau Syndrome

24

Trisomy 18

Edwards syndrome

25

Turner Syndrome

45 - X

26

Klinefelter syndrome

47 XXY

27

Transitions

Purine to Purine

28

Transversions

Purine to pyrimidine

29

Chromatin

mixture of DNA, RNA and proteins

30

nucleosomes and folding of chromatin are...

barriers to enzymes

31

Chromatin is made more available by....

histones being genetically modified

histone being displace by chromatin remodelling complexes

32

Chromosomes are compact and VISIBLE during....

metaphase

33

Exons

Coding regions

34

Introns

Non-coding regions

35

Major role of RNA

to participate in protein synthesis

DNA --> mRNA/tRNA/rRNA --> protein

36

tRNA

major role to TRANSLATE mRNA sequence into an AA sequence

37

rRNA

component of ribosomes

transported into the cytoplasm where they combine with proteins to form a ribosome