What are the 2 subdivisions of the peritoneum?
Define peritoneal cavity
Potential space between visceral and parietal peritoneum
What are the two major divisions of the peritoneal cavity?
Through which passage do these two sacs communicate?
Organ completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum
Organ firmly attached to posterior abdominal wall and only covered by peritoneum on anterior surface
List all the retroperitoneal organs.
- Suprarenal glands
- Colon (ascending and descending)
List the intraperitoneal organs.
- Final bit of duodenum
- Transverse colon
- Sigmoid colon
What is present in the peritoneal cavity?
Which layer of peritoneum is more sensitive to pressure, pain, heat and cold?
What are the attachments of the lesser omentum?
Lesser curvature of stomach
What are the attachments of the greater omentum?
Greater curvature of stomach
Why is the greater omentum referred to as the abdominal policeman?
Adheres to site of infection, localising it and preventing further spread.
Name the 3 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall.
State the vertebral levels of the 3 major openings in the diaphragm and state what passes through each.
T8 - IVC
T10 - oesophagus
T12 - aorta
What are the 3 main branches of the abdominal aorta which supplies blood to the gut tube?
Superior mesenteric a
Inferior mesenteric a
What vertebral level does the abdominal sorta divide?
How is the IVC formed in the abdomen
2 common iliac veins
What level does the coeliac trunk branch off the aorta?
What level does the superior mesenteric artery branch off the aorta?
What level does the inferior mesenteric artery branch off the aorta?
Coeliac trunk supplies what structures?
Sup mesenteric supplies what structures?
Inf mesenteric supplies what structures?
The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 major veins?
Superior mesenteric vein
Splenic vein (which inferior mesenteric joins to)
List the 4 sites of portocaval anastomoses in the body.
- Liver - bare area
Clinical significance of these portocaval anastomoses?
Indicate portal hypertension.
In portal hypertension, the anastomoses become congested and form venous dilatations
What nerve is secretomotor to the stomach?
What is the functional difference between the greater, lesser and least splanchic nerves and the pelvic splanchic nerves?
Pelvic splanchic nerves = parasympathetic
S2, S3, S4
Why does the right kidney lie lower than the left kidney?