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Anatomy Year 2 - GI > Class 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Class 2 Deck (43)
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1

What are the 2 subdivisions of the peritoneum?

Visceral

Parietal

2

Define peritoneal cavity

Potential space between visceral and parietal peritoneum

3

What are the two major divisions of the peritoneal cavity?

Greater sac

Lesser sac

4

Through which passage do these two sacs communicate?

Epiploic foramen

5

Define intraperitoneal

Organ completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum

6

Define retroperitoneal

Organ firmly attached to posterior abdominal wall and only covered by peritoneum on anterior surface

7

List all the retroperitoneal organs.

  1. Suprarenal glands
  2. Aorta
  3. Duodenum
  4. Pancreas
  5. Ureter
  6. Colon (ascending and descending)
  7. Kidneys
  8. Esophagus
  9. Rectum

8

List the intraperitoneal organs.

  1. Stomach
  2. Liver
  3. Final bit of duodenum
  4. Illeum
  5. Jejunum
  6. Transverse colon
  7. Sigmoid colon
  8. Caecum
  9. Spleen

9

What is present in the peritoneal cavity?

Peritoneal fluid

10

Which layer of peritoneum is more sensitive to pressure, pain, heat and cold?

Parietal

11

What are the attachments of the lesser omentum?

Lesser curvature of stomach

Liver

12

What are the attachments of the greater omentum?

Greater curvature of stomach

Transverse colon

13

Why is the greater omentum referred to as the abdominal policeman?

Adheres to site of infection, localising it and preventing further spread.

14

Name the 3 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall.

Quadratus lumborum

Psoas

Illiacus

15

State the vertebral levels of the 3 major openings in the diaphragm and state what passes through each.

T8 - IVC

T10 - oesophagus

T12 - aorta

16

What are the 3 main branches of the abdominal aorta which supplies blood to the gut tube?

Coeliac trunk

Superior mesenteric a

Inferior mesenteric a

17

What vertebral level does the abdominal sorta divide?

L4/L5

18

How is the IVC formed in the abdomen

2 common iliac veins

19

What level does the coeliac trunk branch off the aorta?

T12

20

What level does the superior mesenteric artery branch off the aorta?

L1

21

What level does the inferior mesenteric artery branch off the aorta?

L3

22

Coeliac trunk supplies what structures?

Foregut

23

Sup mesenteric supplies what structures?

Midgut

24

Inf mesenteric supplies what structures?

Hindgut

25

The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 major veins?

Superior mesenteric vein

Splenic vein (which inferior mesenteric joins to)

26

List the 4 sites of portocaval anastomoses in the body.

  1. Oesophageal
  2. Rectum
  3. Liver - bare area
  4. Umbilicus

27

Clinical significance of these portocaval anastomoses?

Indicate portal hypertension.

 In portal hypertension, the anastomoses become congested and form venous dilatations

28

What nerve is secretomotor to the stomach?

Vagus

29

What is the functional difference between the greater, lesser and least splanchic nerves and the pelvic splanchic nerves?

Pelvic splanchic nerves = parasympathetic

S2, S3, S4

30

Why does the right kidney lie lower than the left kidney?

Liver