How long is the oesophagus?
What vertebral level is the oesophageal hiatus?
Where are the three constrictions of the oesophagus located?
Cervical, Thoracic, Diaphragmatic
List the structures that go through the oesophageal opening in the diaphragm.
oesopheageal branch of left gastric artery
left inferior phrenic vessels
What is the blood supply of the abdominal part of the oesophagus?
Branches of left gastric artery
What is the venous drainage of the abdominal part of the oesophagus?
Left gastric veins
What is the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal part of the oesophagus?
Left gastric lymph nodes
Stomach: name 2 orifices.
Stomach: name 2 curvatures.
Stomach: name 2 surfaces.
Identify the different parts of the stomach:
What is the pyloric sphincter?
Ring of smooth muscle controlling discharge of stomach contents into duodenum
Clinical aspects of pyloric sphincter: some children are born with ___________ ____________ ___________, presenting as _____________.
congenital pyloric stenosis
presents with vomiting.
What are the gatric folds/rugae of the stomach formed from?
In what 2 portions of the stomach are they most apparent?
Describe the arterial supply to the stomach.
Left gastric artery (from coeliac trunk)
Right gastric artery (from common hepatic)
Left gastro-omental artery (from splenic artery)
Right gastro-omental artery (from common hepatic)
Name the 4 groups of lymph nodes that drain the stomach.
The 4 primary lymph nodes that drain the stomach drain into which group of lymph nodes?
Coeliac lymph nodes
What nerve is key to controlling gastric motility?
What is the effect of increased vagal stimulation on the pyloric sphincter?
Relaxes and opens
What is the effect of increased vagal stimulation on gastric secretions?
Name 3 parts of the small intestine
Duodenum, Jejunum, Illeum
Which part of the small intestine receives the opening of the bile and pancreatic duct?
Major duodenal papilla (duodenum)
Where is the foregut/ midgut boundary in the small intestine?
1/3rd of way along duodenum.
Which part of the small intestine is the shortest, widest and most fixed part?
Compare the jejunum and illeum in life.
Colour, Wall, Vascularity, Vasa recta Arcades, Fat in mesentery, Circular folds
How is the large intestine peritonised?
Caecum Ascending Colon Transverse Colon Descending Colon Sigmoid Colon
Caecum - intra
Ascending Colon - retro
Transverse Colon - intra
Descending Colon - retro
Sigmoid Colon - intra
In which abdominal region is the caecum and appendix located?
What is the midgut/hindgut boundary in the large intestine?
2/3rds along Transverse Colon
Which two structures open into the cavity of caecum?