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Flashcards in Clinical Deck (105):
0

Agency recommends infection control protocol and researches how diseases are transmitted

CDC

1

Agency for developing precaution protocols for employees, in compliance with blood-borne pathogen standard

OSHA

2

Sharps, blood, saliva

Biohazard

3

Agent: Corrosive to metal, strong odor

Chlorine based compound

4

Kills MOST pathogenic microbes, not spores. Broad spectrum.

Disinfection

5

Agent: can discolor surfaces yellow

Iodophors

6

Agent: may leave a film or residue on surfaces

Phenols

7

Agent: not corrosive, lower kill spectrum

Quaternary Compounds

8

Agent: should not be used as surface disinfectant. Toxic effects from fumes. Corrosive.

Glutaraldehydes

10

Kills ALL pathogenic microbes including spores

Sterilization

11

Geobacillus stearothermophilus
20mins
270*F / 132*C
20-40lbs psi

Chemical sterilization / unsaturated chemical vapor

12

Bacillus atrophaes
60mins
320*F / 160*C

Dry/heat sterilization

13

Geobacillus stearothermophilus
20-30mins
250*F / 121*C
15-30lbs psi

Steam sterilization/autoclave

14

how often should spore testing be done

weekly and every time an implant is sterilized

15

Angles occlusal - Class 1

Mesognathic - normal

16

Angles occlusal - Class 2 Div 1

Retrognathic - retruded mandible/anteriors protruded facially

17

Angles occlusal - Class 2 Div 2

Retrognathic - retruded mandible/anteriors inclined lingually

18

Angles occlusal - Class 3

Prognathic - protruded mandible

19

vertical overlap of max incisors to the mand incisors

overbite

20

horizontal distance between the linguals of the max anterior incisors and the facials of the mand anterior incisors

overjet

21

teeth not in occlusion between the max and mand arch

openbite

22

max teeth positioned lingual to mand teeth

crossbite

23

incisal edge to incisal edge of max and mand anterior teeth

edge to edge

24

cusp to cusp of posterior teeth

end to end

25

Stages of plaque/biofilm formation (3)

acquired pellicle (glycoproteins), bacterial adhesion, bacterial colonization (matrix forms)

26

Plaque/biofilm location: nutrient source (2)

Supragingival - saliva
Subgingival - crevicular fluid

27

Calculus location: nutrient source , color

Supragingival - saliva / white, yellow, gray
Subgingival - crevicular fluid and inflammatory exudate / brown, green, black

28

Instrument - calculus detecting (3)

11/12, pigtail(posteriors), orban(anteriors)

29

Stain color - iron, ferric sulfide, gram+

black

30

Stain color - inhaling metallic dust (occupational)

blue-green

31

Stain color - poor OHI, dark beverages

brown

32

Stain color - tobacco

dark brown / black

33

Stain color - chromogenic bacteria, poor OHI, anterior cervical 3rds

orange

34

Stain color - CHX or stannous fluoride, (tin ion)

yellow-brown / brown

35

Stain color -chromogenic bacteria, fungi, gingival hemorrhage, poor OHI

green

36

Stain type - pupal necrosis, internal resorption, systemic fluoride, tetracycline use during tooth development

intrinsic / endogenous
NOT removable

37

Stain type - food, beverages, tobacco

extrinsic / exogenous
removable through instrumentation and polishing

38

Furcation Class 1

early bone loss; depression

39

Furcation Class 2

moderate bone loss; furcation, cannot pass between roots

40

Furcation Class 3

sever bone loss; can pass between roots

41

Furcation Class 4

sever bone loss; can pass between roots AND RECESSION

42

Instrument - furcation detection

Nabers

43

Mobility Class N

normal/none

44

Mobility Class 1

slight horizontal

45

Mobility Class 2

moderate horizontal >1mm, no vertical

46

Mobility Class 3

severe horizontal and vertical combined

47

pH - levels drop below __ for demineralization in 1) enamel and 2) cementum

enamel 4.5-5.5
cementum 6.0-6.7

48

Acids produced in demineralization (3)

lactic, butyric, propionic

49

Acids characteristics in demineralization (2)

acidogenic - producing
aciduric - tolerant

50

Remineralized areas areas are __ and ___ acid resistant than original enamel.

Remineralized areas areas are STRONGER and MORE acid resistant than original enamel.

51

Formed during remineralization

Fluorapatite

52

___ concentration of professionally applied fluoride is bacteri_____

High concentration fluoride is bactericidal (kills)

53

___ concentration of applied at home fluoride is bacteri_____

Low concentration fluoride is bacteriostatic (inhibits)

54

Fluoride therapy type - water, toothpaste, rinse, fluoride

Topical - post eruptive

55

Fluoride therapy type - water, supplements, food

Systemic - pre eruptive

56

Fluoride - community size versus cost

Larger community lower costs
Smaller community higher costs

57

Fluoride levels - warm climate, cold climate

0.7 ppm - warm climate
1.2 ppm - cold climate

58

Organizations - who monitors community tap water; who monitors bottled water

tap - EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
bottle - FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

59

Compounds used in fluoridated water (3)

sodium fluoride, sodium silicofluoride, hydrofluorosilicic acid

60

Fluoride - type used for rampant caries

NaFl - Sodium fluoride

61

Fluoride - type contraindicated for bulimic pts (2)

Stannous or APF

62

Fluoride - dosage & ppm for 6mo - under 3 yr olds

0.25mg/day and <0.3 ppm

63

Fluoride - dosage & ppm for 3-6 yr olds (2)

0.5mg/day and <0.3 ppm
0.25mg/day and 0.3-0.6 ppm

64

Fluoride - dosage & ppm for 6-16 yr olds (2)

1.0mg/day and <0.3 ppm
0.5mg/day and 0.3-0.6 ppm

65

Fluoride - type recommended for bulimic pts (2)

NaFl - Sodium fluoride, neutral sodium

66

Fluoride - Sodium fluoride Varnish % & ppm

5% & 22,600 ppm

67

Fluoride - type that causes discoloration at margins of tooth-colored restorations and with demineralization; has fluoride tin ion; unpleasant taste

Stannous fluoride

68

Fluoride - type contraindicated for tooth-colored restorations and porcelain

APF - Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride

69

Fluoride - Sodium fluoride Rinse % & ppm

0.05% & 225 ppm

70

Fluoride - Stannous fluoride Gel % & ppm; used for ___

0.4% & 1,000 ppm ; dentin hypersensitivity, caries control, plaque reduction

71

Fluoride - Neutral sodium Gel % & ppm; used for ___

1.1% & 5,000 ppm ; decalcification, restorations, pts who whiten, bulimics

72

Define - amount of drug likely to cause death if not intercepted by antidotal therapy

CLD - certainly lethal dose

73

Define - ¼ of CLD

STD - safely tolerated dose

74

Acute fluoride toxicity symptoms begin within ___ (time) of ingestion

30 minutes

75

Emergency tx of <5 mg/kg of fluoride ingested

Administer fluoride binding agent

76

Emergency tx of toxic dose >5 mg/kg of fluoride ingested

Induce vomiting, administer fluoride binding agent, seek medical tx

77

Emergency tx of lethal dose >15 mg/kg of fluoride ingested

Seek medical tx, induce vomiting, cardiac monitoring

78

GI symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity (6)

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased salivation and thirst

79

Systemic symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity (6)

hypocalcemia, hyperreflexia, convulsions, paresthesia, cardiac failure, respiratory paralysis

80

Define - results after long-term exposure of water with 10-25 ppm fluoride or from industrial exposure

Skeletal Fluorosis

81

Type of brush to use on irregular gingival margins of rotated anterior teeth

Tufted brush

82

For debridement an extended shank should be used where

pocket depths greater than 5mm

83

Type of pressure and strokes used for root planing

light pressure; long multidirectional strokes

84

Type of pressure and strokes used for scaling

lateral pressure; firm short multidirectional pull strokes

85

Type of pressure used for exploring

light pressure

86

Gracey - used on all anterior

1-2

87

Gracey - used on premolars

5-6

88

Gracey - used on facials and linguals of posteriors

7-8

89

Gracey - used on mesial, facial, and linguals of posteriors

11-12

90

Gracey - used on mesials of posteriors

15-16

91

Gracey - used on distals of posteriors (2)

13/14 & 17/18

92

Instruments safe for implants (5)

plastic, nylon, graphite, gold-tipped, USS with plastic tip

93

Ultrasonic - elliptical/orbital @ 25,000-40,000cps, all sides active

Magnetostrictive

94

Ultrasonic - linear @ 25,000-50,000cps, lateral sides active

Piezoelectric

95

Contraindications to power driven scaling (5)

demineralized areas, hypersensitivity, communicable disease, respiratory condition

96

Contraindications to polishing (5)

xerostomia, demineralized areas of decay, newly erupted teeth, exposed roots, respiratory condition

97

Contraindications to air polishing (5)

sodium-restricted diet (unless formula is sodium free), active perio condition, soft spongy condition, respiratory condition, or has composite, glass ionomer, or luting agent.

98

% of CHX approved for use in United States

0.12%

99

Clinical uses of CHX (4)

pre-procedural rinse, short-term use, inflammation control of NUG, for implants

100

MOA of CHX

Bactericidal, active against gram +/- microorganisms, alters bacterial cell wall, lysis of cell

101

Patient who uses tobacco should avoid what type of rinse

essential oils, such as listerine

102

Rinse recommended for cancer pts (3)

baking soda/saline followed by plain water, CHX can be used, avoid high alcohol content if there is severe mucositis

103

Pt with what condition should use CHX twice daily

Acute periodontal conditions

104

1st sign of gingivitis

BOP indicating micro-ulcerations of the sulcus

105

Maslow's Hierarchy (5)

1) physical/physiological needs 2) safety/security 3) love/belonging 4) ego/self-esteem 5) self-actualization