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Flashcards in Radiology Deck (39):
1

tiny particles of matter that Possess Mass and travel in straight lines at high speeds

Particulate radiation

2

wave-like energy Without Mass through space or matter

Electromagnetic radiation

3

electromagnetic ionizing radiation of Very Short Wavelength from tungsten by highly accelerated electrons

X-ray

4

speed of a wave

velocity

5

crest to crest of waves

wavelengths

6

number of wavelengths within an amount of time

frequency

7

Negative charge - tungsten filament and molybdenum cup

Cathode

8

Positive charge - copper arm and focal spot

Anode

9

SPEED of electrons when traveling from cathode to anode - determines PENETRATION of X-ray beam

kVp - kilovoltage peak

10

overall darkness or blackness of a film

density

11

Decreased kVp film exhibits Decreased density and appears

Lighter

12

Increased kVp, Increased density, Increased mA - film appears

Darker

13

how sharply dark and light areas appear, RANGE OF SHADES

contrast

14

HIGH contrast & density - ___kVp - ___shades - ___ scale

HIGH contrast & density - LOW kVp - FEW shades - SHORT scale

15

LOW contrast & density - ___kVp - ___shades - ___ scale

LOW contrast & density - HIGH kVp - MANY shades - LONG scale

16

NUMBER of electrons when traveling from cathode to anode - determines PRODUCTION of X-rays

mA - milliamperage

17

how many impulses of radiation are produced per second

60 impulses/second

18

the most common mechanism of damage in humans

ionization of water

19

intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

inverse square law

20

effects seen in person irradiated - not passed on to future generations

somatic

21

effects not seen in person irradiated - passed on to future generations

genetic

22

Cell sensitivity - reproductive tissue, bone marrow, mucous membranes, lymph system, intestines

HIGH

23

Cell sensitivity - lungs, kidneys, liver, growing bone & cartilage, salivary glands, fine vasculature

Medium

24

Cell sensitivity - nerve tissue, heart, skeletal muscle, mature bone, optic lens

low

25

SI unit - dose & Rad

Gy - Gray

26

SI unit - dose equivalent & Rem

Sv -Sievert

27

SI unit - exposure in air, Roentgen

C/kg - Coulomb/kg

28

xray machine = or < 70 kVp requires minimum of ___mm aluminum filtration

= or < 70 kVp = 1.5 mm flitration

29

xray machine >70 kVp requires minimum of ___mm aluminum filtration

>70 kVp = 2.5 mm flitration

30

Lead Apron absorbs __% of scatter radiation and is usually __mm

90% and 0.25mm

31

reduces surface area exposed by use of Lead Diaphragm; beam size at face can be no larger than ___ inches

Collimation; 2.75 inches

32

MPD - Max Permissible Dose for occupational: __rem/year, __Sv/year (__mSv)

5 rem/year, 0.05 Sv/year (50 mSv)

33

hydroquinone and elon; 5 minutes 68 degrees; changes exposed crystals black

developer

34

sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate; 10 minutes; removes unexposed crystals and clears

fixer

35

Processing steps (5)

develop, water, fixer, water, dry

36

safelighting in darkroom - bulb wattage, distance from film, filter

7.5 or 15 watts, 4 feet, GBX-2 filter

37

SLOB

Same Lingual, Opposite Buccal

38

cone length increases = dose decreases by factor of 4

8" @ 1sec
16" @ 4sec

39

mA decreases, impulses increase, kVp same,

15mA, 90kVp, 8imp
10mA, 90kVp, 12imp