Community Health Flashcards Preview

National Board > Community Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Community Health Deck (82):
1

WHO

World Health Organization
(International)

2

IFDH

International Federation of Dental Hygienists
(International)

3

DHHS

Dept of Health and Human Services
(Federal/National)
Healthy People 20/20

4

CDC

Centers for Disease Control
(Federal/National)

5

HRSA

Health Resources and services Admin
(Federal/National)

6

NIH

National Institues of Health
(Federal/National)

7

NIDCR

National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research
(Federal/National)

8

AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
(Federal/National)

9

Medicaid

Programs for the POOR
(State)
Created by Social Security Act 1965

10

SCHIPS

Comprehensive healthcare for children under 18
(State)

11

FQHCs

Federally Qualified Health Centers which serve underserved areas
(State)

12

County & City Health Departments
(Fluoridation)

Directly administer local populations
(Local)

13

Study of disease in Target Population
(large or small / how disease affects groups or individuals)

Epidemiology

14

Number of EXISTING (old & new) cases at a given point in time

Prevalence

15

Number of NEW cases at a given period of time

Incidence

16

Health Variable
Age, gender, race, immune status, genetics

Host Factors

17

Health Variable
Bacteria, virus, fungus

Biological agents

18

Health Variable
Sun exposure, radiation, industrial pollutants

Physical environment

19

Health Variable
Education, SES, diet, substance use/abuse, exercise

Lifestyle

20

Uses of epidemiological information (List 6)

1) Collect data, 2) Understand history, 3) Measure disease, 4) Identify cause, 5) Test for prevention, 6) Plan and evaluate

21

Define
disease or condition that Regularly Occurs in a population

Endemic

22

Define
Unexpected large number of cases of disease in a Specific Population at a Specific Time

Epidemic

23

Define
Widespread outbreaks over a Continent or the World

Pandemic

24

Sample Type
Every item has an equal chance of being selected; reduces chance of bias
(can be computer generated)

Random

25

Sample Type
Based on sub groups

Stratified

26

Sample Type
Select every #th to participate

Systematic

27

Sample Type
Based on convenience

Convenience

28

Sample Type
Based on familiarity with population; high chance of bias

Judgement

29

Variable
Depends on intervention - what is observed

Dependent

30

Variable
The intervention - what is changed

Independent

31

Variable
What stays the same

Controlled

32

Statistics - measurements
Area of spread in a frequency distribution
Most frequently used measure
Affected by extreme scores

Variance

33

Statistics - measurements
Average of distance from the mean
Square root of variance
Affected by extreme scores

Standard Deviation

34

Skew distribution to the Left
Scores fall in the HIGHER range
Mean is Less than median and mode

Negative

35

Skew distribution to the Right
Scores fall in the LOWER range
Mean is More than median and mode

Positive

36

Define
Measures what is intended and is appropriate and accurate

Validity

37

Define
Measurement is reproducible by different investigators / examiner consistency and calibration

Reliability

38

Define
Ability to identify PRESENCE of disease

Sensitivity

39

Define
Ability to identify ABSENCE of disease

Specificity

40

Statistical Test
Hypothetical difference between 2 mean scores

T-Test

41

Statistical Test
Hypothetical difference between 3+ mean scores

ANOVA (analysis of variance)

42

Statistical Test
tests hypothesis
<0.05 is acceptable
1 in 20 possibility outcome OCCURRED BY CHANCE

p-value (probability value)

43

Index
Irreversible, measures past and present caries with PERMANENT dentition

DMFT, DMFS
decayed, missing, filled teeth/surfaces

44

Index
Irreversible, measures past and present caries with DECIDUOUS dentition

dft, dfs
decayed, filled teeth/surfaces

45

Index
Irreversible, measures past and present caries with DECIDUOUS dentition, indicates need for extraction (does not include extracted or exfoliated)

deft
decayed, extraction needed, filled teeth

46

Index
Irreversible, REQUIRES RECESSION, only considers root exposure

RCI - root caries index

47

Index
Reversible, severity vs extent of inflammation

GI - gingival index

48

Index
Reversible, early signs of gingivitis, short term

SBI - sulcular bleeding index

49

Index
Irreversible AND reversible, prevalence & severity of perio AND gingivitis

PDI - periodontal disease index (Ramfjord)

50

Ramfjord teeth (6)

3, 9, 12, 19, 25, 28

51

Index
Irreversible, looks at surrounding tissue, no CAL, by Russel

PI - periodontal index

52

Index
Rapid and effective, perio health, Special Probe

PSR - perio screening and recording

53

Index
Est. by WHO for TX NEEDS rather than perio status, Special Probe

CPITN - community perio index of tx needs

54

Index
Reversible, measures oral hygiene, debris and calc, FOR GROUP not individual

OHI-S - simplified oral hygiene

55

Index
Reversible, Silness and Loe, used with GI, plaque thickness at gingival margin

PLI - plaque

56

Index
Reversible, measures plaque after brushing for pt skill

PHP - pt/hygiene performance

57

Index
Reversible, measures supra calc formation after prophy, for plaque control and calculus inhibition, used to TEST AGENTS

VMI - Volpe-Manhold

58

Access to care
type of care available

Need

59

Access to care
type of care desired

Demand

60

Access to care
actual use of service

Utilization

61

Exam Method
mirror, explorer, light, X-rays, tests / time & money

Type I : COE

62

Exam Method
mirror, explorer, light, limited X-rays

Type II : Limited

63

Exam Method
mirror & light

Type III

64

Exam Method
tongue depressor & light

Type IV

65

Define
Broad based statement of desired outcome of a program

Goal

66

Define
Measurable statement of steps to be taken to achieve goals

Objective

67

Stages of Learning (6)

Unaware, Aware, Self-interest, Involvement, Action, Habit

68

Procedures (6)
Private Dental Practice

1) Examination 2) Diagnosis 3) Tx Planning 4) Treatment 5) Payment 6) Evaluation

69

Procedures (6)
Community Dental Health

1) Survey 2) Analysis 3) Program Planning 4) Program Operation 5) Finance 6) Evaluation/Appraisal

70

Level of govt that supplies grant funding

Federal

71

Level of govt that applies for grants

State

72

Level of govt the provides services

Local

73

Probable cause & effect; Given as a number between +1 and -1

Correlation Co-efficient
Closer the number is to +/- 1 the stronger the correlation; closer to 0 the weaker.

74

Characteristics of an ideal index (8)

Simple, Valid, Reliable, Clear, Sensitive, Quantifiable, Objective, Accepted

75

Categories of Indices (4)

Reversible, Irreversible, Simple, Cumulative

76

Index category
Measures presence OR absence of a disease

Simple

77

Index category
Measures past and present of all evidence of a condition

Cumulative

78

Medicare

Programs for the ELDERLY and Disabled
(State)
Created by Social Security Act 1965

79

Grant
Lump sum of money given to a group to use at their discretion to meet a need (Support a benefit - anything goes)

Block Grant

80

Grant
Specifies where money goes (Supplies only soft bristle brushes for a benefit)

Line Item Grant

81

Act
Group health plans to temporarily continue if fired, lay-off, or change in employment status

COBRA - Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

82

Steps for a Community Program (4)

1) Needs Assessment 2) Plan Program 3) Implement Program 4) Evaluate Program