Flashcards in Clinical- 4 Deck (143)
What is a coma?
A state of deep unarousable unresponsiveness that lasts for a prolonged or indefinite period.
What is delirium?
A confusional state in which the level of conscience is depressed but to s lesser extent than a coma
What is dementia?
A chronic confusional state that develops months to years (med school)
What are some pre-existing conditions that may predispose you to confusional states?
Alcoholism, drugs, diabetes, heart disease, epilepsy, head trauma, and various therapeutic drugs
What is the main difference between delirium vs dementia?
Delirium is several hours-days, dementia develops over months-YEARS
What are the clinical signs of hypoglycemia?
Tachycardia, sweating, and dilated pupils progressing to mimic herniation with or without lateralized Sx.
Low plasma glucose
IV GLUCOSE YEEEEE
Think diabetic shock!
Headache, fever, brudzkinski/Kernig sign
Bacterial meningitis- Dx
+ CSF ram stain, low CSF glucose, increased CSF protein
Bacterial meningitis- Tx
What are the 2 types of trauma injuries to cause delirium or dementia?
Subarachnoid hemorrhage anew traumatic intracranial hemorrhage
Wernickes encephalopathy- Sx
Wernickes encephalopathy- Dxq
Macrocyclic anemia possible.
Wernickes encephalopathy- Tx
What could fever a sign of?
Infection, anti cholinergic or sympathy mimetic intoxication, ethanol or sedative drug withdraw, sepsis
What could hypothermia be a sign of?
Ethanol or sedative drug intoxification, hepatic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, sepsis
What could HTN be a sign of?
Anti cholinergic or sympathomimetric intox, ethanol or sedative drug withdrawal, HTN encephalopathy, subarachnoid hemorrhage
What could bradycardia be a sign of?
What could hyperventilation be a sign of?
Hepatic encepalopathy, hyperglycemia, sepsis
Neck stiffness could be a sign of what?
Meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage
Battle sign, raccoon eyes, hemotympanum, or CSF oto/rhinorrhea could be a sign of what?
What could jaundice be a sign of?
Petechial rash could be a sign of what?
Heart murmurs could be a sign of what 2 things?
Infection or stroke
Abdominal mass could be a sign of what 4 things?
Aliens, infections, tumors, hepatic encephalopathy
Rectal bleeding could be a sign of what?
Papillae demos could be a sign of what 2 things?
HTN encephalopathy, intracranial mass
Dilated pupils could be a sign of what 4 things?
Head trauma, sedative drugs, withdrawal from ethanol or sedative drugs, sympathomimetric intoxication