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Flashcards in Clinical Descriptions in Endocrine Deck (73):
1

Most common cause of adrenal insufficiency

Addison's disease

2

autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex

Addison's disease

3

What is Addison's disease associated with?

pernicious anaemia
Type 1 DM
Autoimmune thyroid disease

4

Lack of CRH/ACTH caused yb pituitary/hypothalmic disease or exogenous steroid use

secondary adrenal insufficiency

5

Disorder of excess cortisol secretion with high mortality, most common in women aged 20-40

Cushing's syndrome

6

Most common cause of Cushing's?

iatrogenic

7

Autonomous production of aldosterone independent of its regulators (angiotensin II and potassium)

Primary aldosteronism

8

Commonest secondary cause of hypertension?

Primary aldosteronism

9

What are the subtypes of Primary aldosteronism?

Adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome)
Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (most common cause)

10

Are genetic mutations and unilateral hyperplasia common causes of Primary aldosteronism?

no, rare causes

11

Rare condition associated with enzyme defects in the steroid pathway, commonest is 21a hydroxylase deficiency

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

12

Rare tumours of the adrenal medulla
Curable form of hypertension, but can be potentially fatal

Phaeochromocytoma

13

Phaeochromocytoma is associated with what?

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia II
Succinate dehydrogenase mutations
Neurofibromatosis
Tuberose Sclerosis

14

Phaeochromocytoma is associated with what?

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia II
Succinate dehydrogenase mutations
Neurofibromatosis
Tuberose Sclerosis

15

activation mutation in tyrosine kinase receptors

Multiple endocrine neoplasia II

16

Mutation in HIF 1-alpha, range of vascular tumours

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome

17

Most common cause of hypothyroidism in the western world

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

18

goitrous hypothyroidism which can be caused by drugs such as amiodarone

Iodine deficiency

19

Is congenital developmental defect hypothyroidism goitrous?

no

20

Typically affects elderly women with long standing but frequently unrecognized/untreated hypothyroidism
high mortality

myxoedmea coma

21

Autoimmune cause of hyperthyroidism

Grave's

22

Hyperthyroidism in older patients, more insidious onset, glands may feel nodular

multinodular goitre

23

hyperthyroidism most common in females, may be virally triggered, associated with sore throat/fever etc

sub-acute thyroiditis/De Quervians

24

Severe hyperthyroidism causing respiratory and cardiac collapse, hyperthermia, exaggerated reflexes, may be linked with an infection

Thyroid Storm

25

Commonest type of thyroid cancer.

Papillary

26

Type of thyroid cancer ass. with Hashimoto's

Papillary

27

Second most common type of thyroid cancer

Follicular

28

Incidence of this type of thyroid cancer is higher in iodine deficient areas

follicular

29

Thyroid cancer with worse prognosis?

anaplastic

30

primary overactivity of parathyroid eg adenoma

hyperparathyroidism

31

overactivity of parathyroid eg adenoma

primary hyperparathyroidism

32

Physiological response to low calcium

secondary hyperparathyroidism

33

Parathyroid becomes autonomous after many yearse of secondary

tertiary hyperparathyroidism

34

Familial deactivating mutation in the calcium sensing receptor

hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia

35

Causes for this include hypoparathyroidism, vit D deficiency, chronic renal failure, pancreatitis, hyperventilation, osteoblastic bone mets, rhabdomyloysis

Hypocalcaemia

36

Can be a congeital absence (Di George syndrome), destruction, autoimmune, hypomanesaemia or idiopathic

hypoparathyroidism

37

Genetic defect causing PTH resistance

pseudohyperparathyroidism

38

Hypoparathyroidism but with normal calcium

pseudo-pseudohyperparathyroidism

39

Abnormality of bone remodelling resulting in thick but weak bone. Viral cause but with genetic disposition

Paget's disease

40

Fibrous cyst formed, usually presents in teenage years

Thyroglossal cyst

41

Rare, congenital cyst, usually presents in teenage years

dermoid cyst

42

persisting second branchial arch arising in upper part of anterior triangle

Branchial cyst

43

Lymphatic lesion arising in posterior triangle of neck

Cystic hygroma

44

Pain and swelling around mealtimes

salivary gland stone

45

Benign salivary gland neoplasm

Pleomorphic adenoma

46

Excessive release of ADH causing dilutional hyponatraemia, most commonly cause by malignancy or infection

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion

47

Hypo secretion/insensitivity to effects of DADH causing inability to concentrate urine in distal renal tubules

Diabetes insipidus

48

2 types of diabetes insipidus?

Cranial (decreased secretion of ADH) or nephrogenic (decreased ability to concentrate urine cause by resistance to ADH in kidneys)

49

makes up 10% of intra cranial tumours, can be sporadic or associated with MEN1

pituitary adenoma

50

Most common FUNCTIONAL tumour

prolactinoma

51

Second most common functional tumour, GH causes increase insulin like growth factors which stimulate growth of bone cartilage and connective tissue

GH secreting functional pituitary adenomas

52

Usually a micro-adenoma, causes bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia, symptoms of Cushings

ACTH secreting functional pituitary adenomas

53

usually panhypopituitarism, many causes eg sarcoidosis, infarction (Sheehan's) or tumours

pituitary hypofunction

54

HLA genes represent around 50% of familial risk of what?

T1DM

55

Genetic - Kallman syndrome
or Normosmic IHH

idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

56

condition affecting hypothalmic function and causing amenorrheoa
Causes include increased physical exercise, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, stress, chronic alcohol use, chronic illness, haemochromatosis

acquired hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

57

can be caused by micro or macro prolactinoma or drugs
Decreased oestrogen production
causes hypothalamic suppresion of GNRH

Hyperprolactinemia

58

Women with only one X chromosome
may have aorta constriction and rudimentary ovaries

Turner syndrome

59

Women with only one X chromosome
may have aorta constriction and rudimentary ovaries

Turner syndrome

60

Menopause before age 40 yrs, usually familial history

Premature ovarian failure

61

Reduced oocyte numbers prematurely

reduced ovarian reserve

62

hyperandrogenism (acne, hirutism) and oligo/amenorrhoea

polycystic ovary syndrome

63

Distally blocked fallopian tube filled with fluid

hydrosalpinx due to PID

64

Presence of endometrial glands outside uterine cavity

Endometriosis

65

What drugs can induce Type 3 DM?

Glucocorticoids, B blockers, diuretics

66

Medical emergency occuring as result of insulin deficiency accompanied by an increase in counter regulatory hormones, leading to severe Hyperglycaemia

DKA

67

Most commonly seen in elderly, happens more to Type 2s than type 1s, can be caused by severe dehydration

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic non-ketotic state

68

excess levels of growth hormone stimulate production of growth factor 1, normally caused by excessive secretion of GH from pituitary tumour

acromegaly

69

congenital condition where hymen without opening completely obstructs the vagina

Imperforate hymen

70

When is Imperforate hymen most often diagnosed?

Most often diagnosed in adolescent girls when menstrual blood accumulates in vagina

71

Adhesion/fibrosis of endometrium, typically caused by trauma eg after miscarraige or abortion

Asherman syndrome

72

Ovarian tumours defined by thyroid tissue compromising more than 50% of overall mass

Struma ovarii

73

Caused by ingestion of exogenous thyroxine

Thyrotoxicosis Factita