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What is anuria?

Non-passage of urine


What may cause anuria?

- Uretal or bladder stones
- Aka urolithiasis
- Damage to urethra/ureters


What are uretal or bladder stones made up of?

Ammonium, magnesium, phosphate


What are some clinical signs of urolithiasis?

- Kicking at belly
- Straining
- Grinding teeth
- Hunched posture
- Pyrexia
- Tachycardia
- Isolation
- Depressed appearance


What may predispose to urolithiasis in sheep?

- High concentrate feed
- Younger males
- Summer
- Castration (removes hormonal control)


What are the most common sites for urolithiasis in male sheep?

- Vermiform appendage (urethral process)
- Scrotum/sigmoid flexure
- Glans penis


Why is obstructive urolithiasis more common in male sheep than females?

- Mares more flexures in urinary tract
- Thinner ureter


What are some of the consequences of obstructive urolithiasis?

- Urethra and penis may rupture
- Bladder rupture
- Irreversible kidney damage


How can obstructive urolithiasis be diagnosed in the male sheep?

- Rectal palpation
- External palpation
- Extrude penis to examine vermiform appendix for presence of caliculi
- Excision of vermiform penis leading to free flowing urine
- Abdominocentesis to assess state of bladder
- Ballotment


What breed of sheep are predisposed to obstructive urolithasis and why?

- Texels (and Scottish blackface)
- Tend to excrete phosphorous through urinary tract rather than saliva and faeces


Outline some of the treatments for obstructive urolithiasis

- Surgery (not appropriate for breeding animals)
- Catheterisation (cat or dog, not recommended for sheep as sigmoid flexure too narrow)
- Diet (may be able to dissolve them)
- NSAIDs to reduce inflammation allowing passage of urine


What changes may occur in the upper urinary tract in cases of obstructive urolithiasis?

- Destruction of renal tissue architecture
- Thickened ureters due to increased back pressure