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Flashcards in Overview and comparative Deck (98)
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1

What are the main components of the urinary system?

- Kidneys
- Ureters
- Bladder
- Urethra

2

List the main functions of the kidney

- Endocrine function
- Acid base balance
- Water balance
- Detoxification
- Blood pressure
- Vitamin D and calcium
Blood glucose regulation

3

Briefly outline the endocrine role of the kidney

- Produces erythropoietin
- Activates vit D
Produces renin

4

Briefly outline the role of the kidney in acid-base balance

- Excretes excess electrolytes
- Moves ions around
- Greatest control of pH after the lungs

5

Briefly outline the role of the kidney in water balance

- Main role of kidney
- Control via sodium and potassium homeostasis
- Effect on blood volume and thus pressure
- Daily fluid intake can vary greatly, need to maintain constant state
- Mainly control of pressure rather than amount of water

6

Briefly outline the role of the kidney in detoxification

- Removal or organic waste e.g. urea and creatinine
- Water soluble only, liver deals with fat soluble
- Potassium
- Very effective
- Drugs bound to proteins will not be cleared
- Liver makes things water soluble so kidney can excrete them

7

Briefly outline the role of the kidney in blood pressure

- Produces renin, RAAS system
- Closed circulatory system - increase water = increased pressure

8

Briefly outline the role of the kidney in vitamin D and calcium

- Produces calcitriol (active vit D)
- Helps regulate calcium
Poor function can lead to demineralisation of bone and fractures, or mineral deposits in soft tissues

9

Briefly outline the role in blood glucose regulation

Site of gluconeogenesis

10

How do perineal hernias occur?

When muscles of pelvic diaphragm fail to support the rectal wall, most often in intact male dogs

11

What is the function of the obturator nerve?

Adduction of hindlimb

12

What is the function of the femoral nerve (L4-6)?

Motor to quadriceps and femoris muscle

13

What is the function of the pelvic splanchnic nerve?

- Parasympathetic GVE to pelvic viscera
- GVA from pelvic viscera

14

What is the function of the caudal cutaneous femoral nerve?

Sensory to skin of caudal thigh

15

What are the 3 tissue regions of the kidney?

- Inner pelvic region
- Medulla
- Cortex

16

Describe the generalised position of the kidneys

- Paired organs
- Retroperitoneal
- Dorsal abdomen
- Ventral lumbar region with limited mobility (except cat)
- Right kidney more cranial (except pig)
- Left kidney most mobile

17

Where does the right kidney lie in the pig?

- Does not touch the liver, unlike other species
- Last rib to 4th lumbar vertebrae
- Kidneys in line

18

Where are glomeruli found?

In the renal pyramids

19

What is the function of the glomeruli?

Production of urine

20

Describe the internal struture of the kidney

- Ureter divides, then divides at again
- At ends of branches have calices
- Calives situated next to/below renal pyramids

21

Why does the lobular structure differ between species?

- All species go through multi-lobular stage in development
- Varyiing degrees of fusion of these in different species

22

Which species have a pseudounilobular structure?

Dog, cat, sheep, horse

23

Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a smooth kidney surface?

Pig and human

24

Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a lobulated kidney surface?

Only cow

25

Which species have unilobular kidneys?

Rodents and lagomorphs

26

Where is the renal pelvis located?

Within the renal sinus at the hilus

27

Describe the renal pelvis of single lobe species

- Large irregular structure
- Broad finger-like processes called recesses (instead of calyces)
- Only 2 recesses in the horse

28

Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, smooth surfaced kidneys

- Small irregular structure
- Short stems ending in calyces

29

Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, lobular surfaced kidneys

Divided proximal ureter leading to multiple calyces

30

Describe the structure of the cat, dog, sheep and horse kidneys

- Lobes seen internally
- Pyramids partially merged
- Papillae merged to form renal crest
- No calices
- Singele pelvis
- Smooth surface