Flashcards in Overview and comparative Deck (98)
What are the main components of the urinary system?
List the main functions of the kidney
- Endocrine function
- Acid base balance
- Water balance
- Blood pressure
- Vitamin D and calcium
Blood glucose regulation
Briefly outline the endocrine role of the kidney
- Produces erythropoietin
- Activates vit D
Briefly outline the role of the kidney in acid-base balance
- Excretes excess electrolytes
- Moves ions around
- Greatest control of pH after the lungs
Briefly outline the role of the kidney in water balance
- Main role of kidney
- Control via sodium and potassium homeostasis
- Effect on blood volume and thus pressure
- Daily fluid intake can vary greatly, need to maintain constant state
- Mainly control of pressure rather than amount of water
Briefly outline the role of the kidney in detoxification
- Removal or organic waste e.g. urea and creatinine
- Water soluble only, liver deals with fat soluble
- Very effective
- Drugs bound to proteins will not be cleared
- Liver makes things water soluble so kidney can excrete them
Briefly outline the role of the kidney in blood pressure
- Produces renin, RAAS system
- Closed circulatory system - increase water = increased pressure
Briefly outline the role of the kidney in vitamin D and calcium
- Produces calcitriol (active vit D)
- Helps regulate calcium
Poor function can lead to demineralisation of bone and fractures, or mineral deposits in soft tissues
Briefly outline the role in blood glucose regulation
Site of gluconeogenesis
How do perineal hernias occur?
When muscles of pelvic diaphragm fail to support the rectal wall, most often in intact male dogs
What is the function of the obturator nerve?
Adduction of hindlimb
What is the function of the femoral nerve (L4-6)?
Motor to quadriceps and femoris muscle
What is the function of the pelvic splanchnic nerve?
- Parasympathetic GVE to pelvic viscera
- GVA from pelvic viscera
What is the function of the caudal cutaneous femoral nerve?
Sensory to skin of caudal thigh
What are the 3 tissue regions of the kidney?
- Inner pelvic region
Describe the generalised position of the kidneys
- Paired organs
- Dorsal abdomen
- Ventral lumbar region with limited mobility (except cat)
- Right kidney more cranial (except pig)
- Left kidney most mobile
Where does the right kidney lie in the pig?
- Does not touch the liver, unlike other species
- Last rib to 4th lumbar vertebrae
- Kidneys in line
Where are glomeruli found?
In the renal pyramids
What is the function of the glomeruli?
Production of urine
Describe the internal struture of the kidney
- Ureter divides, then divides at again
- At ends of branches have calices
- Calives situated next to/below renal pyramids
Why does the lobular structure differ between species?
- All species go through multi-lobular stage in development
- Varyiing degrees of fusion of these in different species
Which species have a pseudounilobular structure?
Dog, cat, sheep, horse
Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a smooth kidney surface?
Pig and human
Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a lobulated kidney surface?
Which species have unilobular kidneys?
Rodents and lagomorphs
Where is the renal pelvis located?
Within the renal sinus at the hilus
Describe the renal pelvis of single lobe species
- Large irregular structure
- Broad finger-like processes called recesses (instead of calyces)
- Only 2 recesses in the horse
Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, smooth surfaced kidneys
- Small irregular structure
- Short stems ending in calyces
Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, lobular surfaced kidneys
Divided proximal ureter leading to multiple calyces