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What are the main components of the urinary system?

- Kidneys
- Ureters
- Bladder
- Urethra


List the main functions of the kidney

- Endocrine function
- Acid base balance
- Water balance
- Detoxification
- Blood pressure
- Vitamin D and calcium
Blood glucose regulation


Briefly outline the endocrine role of the kidney

- Produces erythropoietin
- Activates vit D
Produces renin


Briefly outline the role of the kidney in acid-base balance

- Excretes excess electrolytes
- Moves ions around
- Greatest control of pH after the lungs


Briefly outline the role of the kidney in water balance

- Main role of kidney
- Control via sodium and potassium homeostasis
- Effect on blood volume and thus pressure
- Daily fluid intake can vary greatly, need to maintain constant state
- Mainly control of pressure rather than amount of water


Briefly outline the role of the kidney in detoxification

- Removal or organic waste e.g. urea and creatinine
- Water soluble only, liver deals with fat soluble
- Potassium
- Very effective
- Drugs bound to proteins will not be cleared
- Liver makes things water soluble so kidney can excrete them


Briefly outline the role of the kidney in blood pressure

- Produces renin, RAAS system
- Closed circulatory system - increase water = increased pressure


Briefly outline the role of the kidney in vitamin D and calcium

- Produces calcitriol (active vit D)
- Helps regulate calcium
Poor function can lead to demineralisation of bone and fractures, or mineral deposits in soft tissues


Briefly outline the role in blood glucose regulation

Site of gluconeogenesis


How do perineal hernias occur?

When muscles of pelvic diaphragm fail to support the rectal wall, most often in intact male dogs


What is the function of the obturator nerve?

Adduction of hindlimb


What is the function of the femoral nerve (L4-6)?

Motor to quadriceps and femoris muscle


What is the function of the pelvic splanchnic nerve?

- Parasympathetic GVE to pelvic viscera
- GVA from pelvic viscera


What is the function of the caudal cutaneous femoral nerve?

Sensory to skin of caudal thigh


What are the 3 tissue regions of the kidney?

- Inner pelvic region
- Medulla
- Cortex


Describe the generalised position of the kidneys

- Paired organs
- Retroperitoneal
- Dorsal abdomen
- Ventral lumbar region with limited mobility (except cat)
- Right kidney more cranial (except pig)
- Left kidney most mobile


Where does the right kidney lie in the pig?

- Does not touch the liver, unlike other species
- Last rib to 4th lumbar vertebrae
- Kidneys in line


Where are glomeruli found?

In the renal pyramids


What is the function of the glomeruli?

Production of urine


Describe the internal struture of the kidney

- Ureter divides, then divides at again
- At ends of branches have calices
- Calives situated next to/below renal pyramids


Why does the lobular structure differ between species?

- All species go through multi-lobular stage in development
- Varyiing degrees of fusion of these in different species


Which species have a pseudounilobular structure?

Dog, cat, sheep, horse


Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a smooth kidney surface?

Pig and human


Which species have a multi-lobed structure with a lobulated kidney surface?

Only cow


Which species have unilobular kidneys?

Rodents and lagomorphs


Where is the renal pelvis located?

Within the renal sinus at the hilus


Describe the renal pelvis of single lobe species

- Large irregular structure
- Broad finger-like processes called recesses (instead of calyces)
- Only 2 recesses in the horse


Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, smooth surfaced kidneys

- Small irregular structure
- Short stems ending in calyces


Describe the renal pelvis of multilobed, lobular surfaced kidneys

Divided proximal ureter leading to multiple calyces


Describe the structure of the cat, dog, sheep and horse kidneys

- Lobes seen internally
- Pyramids partially merged
- Papillae merged to form renal crest
- No calices
- Singele pelvis
- Smooth surface