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Flashcards in Urination Deck (79)
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1

How is urine transported from the kidneys to the bladder?

- Via ureters, peristalsis
- Locally regulated smooth muscle
- Low pressure in renal pelvis
- Also passive due to constant pressure from urine produced in kidney

2

Define micturition

The normal process of passive storage and active voiding of urine
- What happens to the urine after the kidneys

3

How is retrograde flow back up the ureters prevented?

- Ureters enter at oblique angle to bladder
- As bladder fills, closes off the ureters
- However, retrograde flow can occur while in ureters although is prevented by peristalsis and constant pressure from kidneys

4

What type of muscle is present in the bladder and urethra?

- Bladder: smooth muscle
- Urethra: smooth and skeletal muscle

5

What is the main function of sympathetic innervation to the bladder?

- Storage
- Contracts internal sphincter preventing passage of urine

6

Where is the detrusor muscle?

- Network of smooth muscle fibres within bladder wall

7

What is the innervation to the detrusor muscle?

- Sympathetic and parasympathetic

8

Describe the internal urethal spincter

- Thickening of bladder muscularture
- Smooth muscle
- Sympathetic supply

9

Describe the external urethral sphincter

- Striated muscle fibres
- Under voluntary control of somatic nervous system
- Also used in storage

10

Describe the function of the sensory innervation to the bladder

- Stretch sensitive
- Nerve endings in bladder wall
- Indicate level of filling

11

What types of motor innervation are involved in micturition?

- Somatic
- Parasympathetic
- Sympathetic

12

Describe the somatic innervation of micturition (outflow, synapse, what it innervates, function)

- Outflow S1-2 (pudendal nerve)
- No synapse
- Innervates urethral skeletal muscle (external urethral sphincter)
- Function is to retain urine

13

Describe the parasympathetic supply to the bladder (outflow, synapse, what it innervates, neurotransmitterfunction)

- Outflow S1-3 (pelvic plexus)
- Synapse: pelvic plexus or bladder wall
- Innervates detrusor muscle
- ACh
- Excitatory, empty bladder

14

Describe the sympathetic supply to the detrusor muscle (outflow, synapse, neurotransmitter, receptor, function)

- Outflow: L1-4
- Synapse: caudal mesenteric ganglion (or occasionally bladder wall)
- Norepinephrine
- Beta receptor
- Inhibitory, allow bladder filling

15

Describe the sympathetic supply to the internal sphincter muscle (outflow, synapse, neurotransmitter, receptor, function)

- Outflow: L1-4
- Synapse: caudal mesenteric ganglion
- Norepinephrine
- Alpha-receptors
- Excitatory, retains urine and increases urethral tone

16

What is the significance of the sympathetic outflow to the bladder and internal sphincter?

- Same outflow
- Allows excitation of sphincter and relaxation of detrusor to allow urine storage

17

Describe the central connections involved in the innervation of the bladder

- Control at pons and cerebral cortex
- Some postulated control from cerebellum
- Some bladder function local (within spinal cord) , some cerebrocortical input
- Cerebral input allows control of all the processes

18

What is the detrusor reflex?

The reflex contraction of the detrusor muscle in order to expel urine

19

How is the detrusor reflex stimulated?

- Increase in bladder pressure during filling
- Detrusor stretched
- Once at certain level of stretch = reflex contraction to urinate
- Moderated in local reflex arc (no brain involvement)
- Contraction occurs against urethral sphincter tone

20

What is the micturition reflex?

The reflex ejection of urine from the bladder, via the urethra
- Combination of detrusor reflex with inhibition of sympathetic, and voluntary motor supply to the bladder and urethra

21

Describe the micturition reflex

- Voluntary or automatic
- Detrusor contraction (stimulated by increased pressure)
- Inhibits sympathetic and somatic supply to urethral sphincters
- Bladder contracts, sphincters open, urine voided
- Moderated at levels of sacral spinal and lumar spinal cord segments

22

What ensures complete voiding of the bladder?

- Positive feedback to destrusor
- Will be completed once initiated

23

Describe the automatic control of micturition

- Once bladder reaches particular pressure
- No control of detrusor muscle, only control over external urethral sphincter
- Reflex pathways, bladder empties spontaneously

24

Describe the voluntary control of micturition

- Suppression of autonomic reflexes to a degree, but overridden once reaches certain pressure
- Can initiate micturition at appropriate time
- Increase intra-abdominal pressure to increase bladder pressure and initiate detrusor and micturition reflex

25

What drugs increase sphincter tone?

Alpha-sympathomimetic

26

What drugs decrease sphincter tone?

- Alpha-adrenergic blockers
- Skeletal muscle relaxants

27

What drugs increase detrusor tone?

Parasympathomimetics

28

Define incontinence

Lak of voluntary control of excretory functions (can occur alongside normal micturition as is a lack of voluntary control, not dysfunction of micturition itself)

29

What do disorders of micturition refer to?

- Abnormalities of detrusor or sphincters
- Normal, increased or decreased activity

30

List clinical syndromes of disroders of micturition

- Inappropriate voidiig
- Inadequate voiding with an overflow of urine
- Increased frequency
- Reduced capacity
- Incomplete voiding

31

What is included in inappropriate voiding?

- Dysuria
- Stranguria
- Pollakiuria
- Nocturia
- Enuresis

32

What is dysuria?

Difficult or painful passage of urine

33

What is stranguria?

Straining or hesitancy associated with urination

34

What is pollakiuria?

Increased frequency of urination (small volumes)

35

What is nocturia?

The urge need to urinate overnight

36

What is enuresis?

Unconscious leakage of urine during sleep

37

What are the 2 general causes of incontinence?

- Neurological
- Mechanical

38

Why are neurological problems of incontinence more difficult to diagnose?

- Lesion in sacral region may mean only have sympathetic supply
- Or damage to lumbar region may remove sympathetic supply

39

Describe the clinical presentation with respect to the bladder for animals with upper motor neurone dysfunction

- Increased tone, retained reflexes (spastic paralysis)
- Absence of voluntary micturition
- Remove connection between brain and spinal cord
- High volume of urine retention
- Automatic bladder emptying possible

40

Describe the clinical presentation with respect to the bladder for aniamsl with lower motor neurone dysfunction

- Flaccid paralysis, areflexic
- No perineal winking
- Permanent leakage of urine as sphincters are open
- Atonic bladder, easily expressed
- Absence of voluntary micturition
- Atonic urethral sphincters
- Absent detrusor reflex
- Concurrent reduced perineal reflex and anal tone

41

List abnormalities of the bladder that can cause incontinence

- Ectopic ureters
- Acquired abnormalities of lower urinary tract (e.g. neoplasia, calculi, trauma)
- Functional outflow obstruction (e.g. reflex dyssynergia)
- Normal voiding with leakage (SMI)
- Secondary detrusor muscle atony
- Urge incontinence
- Cat tail pull injuries

42

Describe ectopic ureters as a cause of incontinence

- Congenital maformation
- Ureters entering directly into urethra
- Most common of abnormalities
- Constant dribble of urine
- If one into urethra and one normal, can get constant dribble and normal urination

43

Describe acquired abnormalities of the lower urinary tract as a cause of incontinence

- Trauma e.g. fistula development (openign from urethra into inappropriate space) or scarring leading to strangulation of one of pathways
- Blockage or malfomation of lower urinary tract system affects normal process of stage or voiding

44

Describe functional outflow obstruction e.g. reflex dyssynergia as a cause of incontinence

- Initiation of detrusor refex with reflex contraction of urethral sphincter
- Goes through all motions of urination, but none voided (as sphincter is contracted)
- Overfilling of bladder and risk of rupture
- Can be internal or external sphincter contraction

45

Describe sphincter mechanism incompetence as a cause of incontinence

- SMI
- Weak valve on bladder, leakage of urine
- Normal micturition but continuous low level leakage or when increased abdominal pressure
- More common in bitch

46

Why is sphincter mechanism incompetence more common in the bitch?

- Shorter effective length of urethra, less control
- Spayed bitches (hormonal interactions)
-

47

What are some treatment options for sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch?

- Alpha-adrenergic agonists
- Oestrogens
- Surgery (culposuspension)

48

Describe how secondary detrusor muscle atony can cause incontinence

- Secondary to primary problem leading to detrusor muscle damage
- Decreased/absent tone in detrusor, unable to contract and void urine
- Over-stretchig usually cause

49

Describe urge incontinence

- Micturition reflex innitiated at low volume
- More common with bladder mucosa irritation e.g. cystitis
- Constant dribbling urine

50

Explain how cat tail pull injuries can lead to incontinence

- Avulsion of sacral nerves
- Paralysis of S1, 2, 3 nerve functions
- Permanent LMN paraysis of bladder, flaccid tail
- Incontinent for life

51

What are the important features of a clinical exam in micturition disorders?

- History of voiding
- Assessment of bladder size
- Assessment of urethral sphincter tone
- Assess integrity of detrusor/micturition reflex
- Perineal reflex
- Full neurological assessment may be needed

52

How is bladder size assessed?

- Palpation
- Size (fullness) and tone
- Should feel turgid, floppy = reduced detrusor/bladder tone
- Important when suspect rupture

53

How is urethral sphincter tone assessed?

- Manual expression
- Should not urinate on light squeezing
- Urination would suggest loss of tone

54

How is the integrity of the detrusor/micturition reflex assessed?

- INcrease vesicular pressure (squeezing)
- Should promote micturition at a particular pressure
- Risk of rupture

55

How is the perineal reflex assessed?

- Lift tail and stimulate perineum
- Look for anal winking
- Same nerve stimulates this as does the sphincters (sacral segment)

56

What are some renal pathological changes that may occur due to ectopic ureters?

- Enlarged renal pelvic region
- Enlarged kidney
- Lost tone
- Thickened ureter
- Loss of architecture (distinction between layers)
- Presence of blood due to inflammation

57

Describe the normal defaecation and urination patterns of cows

- Tail held in horizontal position, back rounded
- No preference for elimination sites

58

Describe the normal defaecation and urination patterns of horses

- Raise tail when urinate
- Stretch legs out, stomach lowered to ground
- Manure patterns influenced by gender
- Stallions: sniff and defecate on top of manure pat
- mares also siff, but do not turn before defaecating
- Geldings less particular

59

Describe the normal defaecation and urination patterns of dogs

- Many normal postures
- Females usually squat, males usually raise
- Usually develop substrate and area preferences

60

Describe the normal defaecation and urination patterns of cats

- Back end lowered, straight back
- Strong substrate preferences and aversioins

61

Describe the use of elimination in territorial marking in horses

- Males urinate on eliminations of females
- Specific stud piles
- Mare likely to defaecate if sees another defaecating
- Mare may sniff then urinate on dung pile if not seen produced

62

Describe the use of elimination in territoral marking in dogs

- Mark territory using urination
- Pheromones in urine
- Different to normal urine
- More prominent in entire animlas

63

Describe the use of elimination in territoral marking in cats

- Urination rather than defaecation
- Smaller volume, vertical surfaces, pungent smell
- Multi-cat households

64

Which species use elimination behaviour in reproductive signalling

- Horses
- Dogs
- Cats

65

Describe elimination behaviour for reproductive signalling in horses

- Mares urinate more frequently
- Urine with more mucus
- Stand in squatting position
- Clitoral winking

66

Describe elimination behaviour for reproductive signalling in dogs

- Frequent urination in prooestrus
- May get bloody vaginal discharge

67

Describe elimination behaviour for reproductive signalling in cats

- Frequent urination
- Production of clear vulval discharge

68

Describe behaviour traits that facilitate house training in exotic species (meerkats, badgers, tiger quolls)

- Communal toilets
- Number of toilets near core territory
- Some latrines on boundary shared by neighbouring groups
- Provision of latrines that smell of different group encourages use of those toilets

69

What stimulates elimination in puppies and kittens?

- Unable to defaecate and urinate on their own
- Stimulated by mother licking caudal abdomen and perineal regions
- Stimualtes anogenital reflex = urination and defaecation

70

Give a general idea of the development of elimination behaviour in puppies and kittens

- Birth: unable alone, stimulated by mother
- 15 days: voluntary elimination develops
- 3-6 weeks: voluntary control acheived, follow mother to latrine site
- 12 weeks: latrine preferences fixed
- 6 months: leg cocking develops in males, onset of puberty

71

What is the difference between spraying and latrine behaviour?

- Spraying is to communicae
- Latrine behaviour is for elimination of urine or faeces

72

What are the significant features of spray marking?

- Usually in response to stress/high arousal
- Significant areas of home
- Still using appropriate latrine area for urine and faeces
- Often vertical spraying posture with tail quiver
- No evidence of physical ailment

73

What may cause latrine behvaiour issues?

- Medical disorders
- Latrine aversion
- Substrate preference/aversion
- Location aversion/preference
- Inadequate/loss of house training
- Lack of indoor facility

74

Give some situations that may result in house-soiling in cats

- Inflammatory disease of urinary system/lower bowel
- Conditions causing PUPD
- Conditions causing cognitive decline
- Historical associations with painful elimination
- Introduction of new cat
- Separation anxiety

75

Give some medical causes of house soiling in dogs

- Neoplastic (bladder tumours)
- Metabolic disorders (diabetes)
- Dietary
- Pain related (hip dysplasia)
- Infectious/inflammatory (urolithiasis)
- Neurological

76

Give some behavioural causes of house soiling in dogs

- Lack/incomplete house training
- Sexual signalling
- Social signalling
- Arousal
- Owner related
- Physical distress
- Social distress
- Secondary to psychogenic polydipsia

77

How can house-soiling be modified using practical techniques?

- Effective cleaning of soiled areas
- Stop punishment
- Chemical therapy to treat underying problem
- Environmental manipulations (pheromones, control of stressor etc)
- Control impact of stressor (prevent cat seeing other cats in area e.g. obscure window)

78

Describe treatment for inappropriate latrine behaviour in cats

- Ensure resources readily available for all cats
- Protect area (L-shpaed litter box)
- Confine for short periods if necessary
- Stop punishment
- Addess cause e.g. stress
- Create attractive latrine areas
- Retrain where necessary

79

Describe treatment for house-soiling in dogs

- House training
- Do not punish
- Reward appropriate behaviour
- Learn cues from dog