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Flashcards in Clues And Probability Deck (22):
1

What is a clue?

Any piece of info gained from patients (directly or indirectly) that aids in problem solving and diagnosis of a condition

2

What are positive clues

Present and abnormal
Easiest to detect

3

What are negative clues

Harder to detect
Absence of something
Cannot be seen or heard

4

What three things are used to evaluate clinical clues

Clinical expertise
Diagnostic strategy
Clues (- & +)

5

What are the 6 principles for evaluating clinical evidence

Reliability
Validity
Sensitivity
Specificity
Predictive values
Likelihood ratios

6

What is Bates theorem of probability

A formula that describes how to update the probabilities of hypotheses when given evidence

7

When is Hayes theorem helpful

Useful when considering:
The incidence of a disease in a population
The incidence of a specific clue in a disease
The incidence of this symptoms in a persons who do not have the disease

8

What does true positive mean

The patient has the disease and the test is positive

9

What does false positive mean

The patient does not have the disease but the test is positive

10

What does true negative mean

The patient does not have the disease and the test is negative

11

What does false negative mean

The patient has the disease but the test is negative

12

What does sensitivity mean

The proportion of patients with the disease who have a positive test
TP test

13

When is a high sensitivity important

Where the test is used to identify a serious but treatable disease

14

What is specificity

The proportion if patients without the disease with a negative test
TN rate

15

What is incidence

The rate at which new cases occur in a population at risk during a specific period

16

What is the formula for incidence if the population is stable

Incidence= number of cases / population at risk X time during which cases were ascertained

17

What is prevalence

The proportion of a population who have a disease at a point in time is the prevalence of disease.

18

What is the formula for prevalence

Prevalence = cases / population

19

D

The presence of disease

20

-d

The absence of a disease

21

C

The presence of a clue/symptom

22

-c

The absence of a clue/symptom