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Flashcards in Common Conditions, Signs And Symptoms Deck (170):
1

Abscess

An enclosed collection of liquefied tissue. It is the result of the body’s defensive reaction to foreign material. May be sterile or septic

2

Aetiology

Cause, or set of causes

3

Alopecia

Partial or complete loss of hair

4

Amenorrhoea

The absence of mentruation/ absence of menstrual flow

5

Anaemia

Reduction below normal the number of erythrocytes, quantity of erythrocytes, quantity of haemoglobin, or the volume of packed red blood cells in the blood

6

Anaesthesia

Loss of the sensation and or the ability to fell pain, usually damage to a nerve or receptor caused by administration of a drug or other medical intervention a sense of cutaneous sensation of touch, temperature and pain

7

Analgesia

Absence of sensitivity to pain

8

Angina pectoris

Chest pain caused by myocardial ischaemia, typically brought on by exertion

9

Ahidrosis

Abnormal deficiency of sweat response to heat

10

Anorexia

Lack/loss of appetite for food in the presence of physiological need for food

11

Anosmia

Absence of the sense of smell

12

Appendectomy

Surgical removal of the appendix

13

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

14

Arteriosclerosis

Thickening of walls, loss of elasticity of arteries

15

Arthralgia

Severe pain in a joint

16

Arthritis

Inflammation of joint(s)

17

Arthropathy

Joint disease

18

Ascites

Presence of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity

19

Ataxia

An impaired ability to coordinate movement, often characterized by a staggering gait and postural imbalance

20

Atherosclerosis

deposition of fatty plaques arterial walls

21

Atrophy

Wasting

22

Black / Brown blood

Blood that has been modified by the stomach acids, and appears in stool or vomit

23

Borborygmi

Bowel sounds

24

Bruits

Swishing sounds, caused by turbulent flow

25

Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa

26

Carcinoma

Cancer of epithelial tissue of the skin, or lining of internal organ

27

Cervicalgia

Neck pain

28

Cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder

29

Cholelithiasis

Presence of gallstones in the gall bladder

30

Claudication

Cramping pain of the calves, especially on walking

31

Clubbing

Proliferation of soft tissue around the ends of fingers or toes, without osseous change

32

Colic

Sharp visceral pain from torsion, obstruction or spasm of a hollow organ

33

Constipation

Infrequent defecation, or defecating with strain or the sensation of incomplete evacuation

34

Cough

An autonomic reflex to clear the respiratory tract

35

Crepitation (crepitus)

Crackling, grinding noise e.g. of joints

36

Cyanosis

A physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, caused
by a lack of oxygen in the blood (increase in deoxygenated haemoglobin)

37

Cyst

A closed cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material

38

Dehydration

The condition that results from excessive loss of body water

39

Diarrhoea

Excessive frequency in the passage of watery stools that are unusually unformed

40

Diplopia

Double vision

41

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of one or more diverticula (abnormal sacs or pouches formed at weak points in the wall of the alimentary tract)

42

Dizziness

As a disorder, dizziness is classified into three categories –
vertigo, syncope, and non-syncope-non-vertigo.

43

Dysaesthesia

Distorts sensations in response to a stimuli and may last longer than the stimulus itself

44

Dysarthria

Poorly articulated speech (speech may be normal in its use of language but may still be difficult to comprehend because of defective articulation)

45

Dyskinesia

The presence of involuntary movements and diminished voluntary movements

46

Dysmenorrhea

Painful menstruation

47

Dyspepsia

Indigestion, heartburn

48

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing

49

Dysphasia

Impairment of speech (language difficulty resulting from lesion(s) to speech areas in the dominant hemisphere)

50

Dyspnoea

Non-painful but uncomfortable awareness of one's own breathing that is inappropriate for the circumstances

51

Dysuria

Painful urination or difficulty in urination

52

Endoscopy

Visualisation of the interior of organs and cavities of the body with an endoscope

53

Enuresis

Involuntary discharge of urine in children over 5 years old

54

Epicondylitis

Inflammation at the epicondyle

55

Epistaxis

Bleeding from the nose

56

Erectile dysfunction

Problems achieving or maintaining and erection that leads to the inability to perform
sexual intercourse. May have vascular, neurological or psychological cause

57

Erythema

Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes

58

Fasciculation

Minor local muscle contractions (twitches)

59

Fatigue

A sense of weariness and/or loss of energy

60

Fever

An abnormal elevation in body temperature

61

Fibroadenoma

Non-cancerous benign tumour of the breast, composed of fibrous, glandular tissue

62

Focal weakness

Focal meaning partial, or pertaining to a specific part of the body. Not overall or generalized weakness, but weakness in a specific part

63

Frank blood

Deep red blood due to more serious internal bleeding

64

Functional incontinence

Due to impaired cognition, musculoskeletal problems or immobility. May be due to general bad health, being bed ridden, fear of public bathrooms

65

Gait

The manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed

66

Ganglion

Small mass arising from synovial tendon sheathes

67

Gastritis

Inflammation of the gastric mucosa

68

Gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and intestines

69

Glaucoma

Damage to the optic nerve, associated with increased fluid pressure within the aqueous humor

70

Goitre

Any visible enlargement of the thyroid gland

71

Haemarthrosis

Bleeding into a joint

72

Haematemesis

The vomiting up of blood

73

Haematoma

Collection of extravasated (leaked) blood in tissues or organs

74

Haematuria

Blood in the urine

75

Haemoptysis

Coughing up blood (streaky or frank)

76

Haemorrhoids

Varicosities in the lower rectum or anus

77

Halitosis

Bad breath

78

Heartburn

Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the oesophagus. A burning pain that may radiate to the epigastrum and neck

79

Hemiparesis

Weakness of one half of the body

80

Hemiplegia

Paralysis to one half of the body

81

Hepatitis

Inflammatory condition of the liver

82

Hepatomegaly

Abnormal enlargement of the liver

83

Hirsutism

Excessive growth of hair in areas not usually hairy in females

84

Iatrogenic

Caused by practitioner, doctor, medical intervention

85

Idiopathic

Due to an unknown cause

86

Incontinence

The inability to control excretory functions

87

Indigestion

Distress associated with eating (Heartburn, excessive gas, nausea)
An unpleasant abdominal fullness after meals or the inability to eat a full meal

88

Insidious

Proceeding in a gradual, subtle way but with harmful effects

89

Intermittent claudation

Pain and or cramping during exercise that is relieved by rest within in 10 minutes

90

Iritis

Inflammation of the iris

91

Jaundice (icterus)

A yellowish discolouration of the skin and sclera due to increased amounts of bilirubin in the blood - Bilirubin derived from the haemolysis of haemoglobin

92

Labyrinthitis

Inflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth)

93

Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx

94

Leukaemia

Malignant condition of the blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow

95

Lipoma

A benign tumour of mature fat cells

96

Lumbago

Pain in the lumbar region

97

Lymphadenopathy

Abnormal enlargement of one or more lymph nodes

98

Macular degeneration

Loss of vision in the centre of the field of vision, damage to the retina

99

Malabsorption

A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness

100

Menarche

The start of menstruation - the first menstruation

101

Menopause

Cessation on menses

102

Micturation

Urination

103

Murmurs

Auscultatory sounds heard in heart chambers or major arteries relating to turbulent blood
flow

104

Myalgia

Muscular pain or tenderness, especially when diffuse and nonspecific

105

Myocardial infarction

Heart attack

106

Myopia

Near-sightedness

107

Myositis

Inflammation of muscle tissue

108

Nausea

Feeling sick to the stomach, with inclination to vomit

109

Nocturia

Increase urination frequency at night

110

Numbness

Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation

111

Nystagmus

Involuntary, usually rhythmic movement of eyeball(s)

112

Obstipation

Complete constipation with no passage of gas or faeces - due to an obstruction

113

Odynophagia

Painful swallowing, may or may not be associated with dysphagia

114

Oedema

An accumulation of fluid into the interstitial space (exudate or transudate)

115

Oesophagitis

Inflammation of the oesophagus

116

Oligomenorrhea

Infrequent mensuration

117

Oliguria

Production of an abnormally small volume of urine

118

Orthopnea

Dyspnoea that occurs when the patient is laying down. Usually associated with fluid in the lungs

119

Osteoarthritis / Osteoarthrosis

Degenerative joint disease

120

Osteomyelitis

Local or general infection of bone and bone marrow

121

Osteoporosis

A disorder of abnormal (decreased) rarefaction of bone

122

Pallor

An unnatural paleness of the skin.

123

Palpitations

An unpleasant awareness of one's own heartbeat. Usually irregular or rapid, with increased force of contraction

124

Papilloedema

Swelling of the optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure

125

Paraesthesia

Peculiar sensations with no obvious stimuli. An abnormal sensation, typically pins and needles

126

Paraplegia

Paralysis of the legs

127

Paroxysmal noctural
dyspnea

Sudden episodes of dyspnoea or orthopnea during the night that wakes a patient from sleep

128

Peptic

Pertaining to digestion (or enzymes associated)

129

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

130

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx (sore throat)

131

Phlegm

Viscid mucus excreted in abnormally large quantities from the respiratory tract

132

Photophobia

Abnormal sensitivity to light

133

Polydactyly

Congenital anomaly characterised by more than the normal numbers of fingers / toes

134

Polydipsia

Abnormally high intake of water and fluids / increased thirst

135

Polymenorrhea

Abnormal frequency menstruation

136

Polyuria

A significant increase in a 24 hour urine volume ( > 3 litres) (production of an abnormally large volume of urine)

137

Presbycusis

Age-related hearing loss

138

Presbyopia

A vision condition involving the loss of the eye’s ability to focus on close objects (age - related long sightedness)

139

Presyncopy

Feeling faint without the actual loss of consciousness

140

Pruritis

A generalised itching of the skin

141

Ptosis

Drooping of the upper eyelid

142

Purpura

Purplish discoloration caused by bleeding into the skin

143

Pyrexia

An abnormal elevation in body temperature

144

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four limbs

145

Referred pain

Pain felt at a site different from the location of the injured or diseased part of the body.
Referred pain is due to the fact that nerve signals from several areas of the body may "feed" the same nerve pathway leading to the spinal cord and brain. Pain is well localized but poorly reproduced

146

Regurgitation

Raising of the oesophageal / gastric contents in the absence of nausea and retching (a non-forceful action)

147

Retching

Spasmodic movements of the chest and diaphragm that precedes and culminates in vomiting (gag reflex)

148

Rhinorrhoea

Nasal discharge associated with stuffiness

149

Scotoma

Speckles or spots in the vision field

150

Seizure

A paroxysmal disorder caused by sudden excessive electrical charge in the cerebral
cortex or its underlying structures

151

Sepsis

The presence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in tissues or in the blood

152

Splenomegaly

Abnormal enlargement of the spleen

153

Sprain

Traumatic injury to ligament(s) associated with exertion

154

Strain

Traumatic injury to muscle(s) associated with exertion

155

Streaky blood

Faint red blood streaks in a body fluid due to minor bleeding

156

Stricture

Abnormal narrowing of the lumen of a hollow organ

157

Syncope

Sudden or temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone that occurs with decreased blood flow to the brain (loss of consciousness (faint) associated with reduction of blood flow to the brain)

158

Tendinitis (tendonitis)

Inflammation of a tendon

159

Tenosynovitis

Inflammation of a tendon sheath

160

Thrombus

Blood clot

161

Tinnitus

A perceived sound that has no external stimulus (e.g. ringing heard in one or both ears)

162

Tremors

Involuntary movements

163

Ulcer

A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue

164

Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra

165

Urinary Urgency

An unusually intense and immediate desire to void

166

Varices

Abnormally and permanently distended veins

167

Vertigo

A false perception that either the patient or the environment is spinning

168

Vomiting

The forceful expulsion of gastric contents out through the mouth

169

Weakness

A loss of muscular power

170

Wheeze

A musical respiratory sound, that may or may not be audible to others, due to a partial respiratory obstruction