CNS Flashcards Preview

systems pathology > CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Deck (71)
Loading flashcards...
1

neuroglial cells

astrocytes
microglial
oligodendroglia
ependymal cells

2

causes for cerebral edema

trauma
bacterial or viral infection
hemmorrhage

3

cerebral edema can be either

vasogenic or cytotoxic

4

vasogenic edema is

extravascular accumulation of fluid due to its leakage across damaged wall (necrotic lesion, abcess, tumor); due to new capillary bed formation secondary to lack of good BBB

5

cytotoxic edema is

intracellular accumulation of fluid such as ischemia, toxin, or hypoxia --> impair cell wall function

6

pathology of cerebral edema

flat gyri, decreased demarcation between gray and white matter, slitlike sulci, swollen and heavier, brain herniation

7

clinically patient will present with what symptoms when having cerebral edema?

headache, papilledema, vomiting, due to increase of intracranial pressure

8

hyodrocepphalus has two categories

non-communicating and communicating

9

in non-communicating hydrocephalus is (obstructive) what cannot reach the subarachnoid space?

CSF

10

2 types of congenital non-communicating hydrocephalus

arnold chiari malformation
&
stenosis of aqueduct of sylvius or foramina of ventricles (CSF cannot reach 4 & 3rd ventricles)

11

arnold chiari is when the

cerebellar tonsil's are displaced into the cervical canal through the foramen magnum

12

cerebellar tonsilar herniation will cause what clinically?

flattening of base of skull and hydrocephalus is present

13

acquired hydrocephalus types

inflammation - meningitis secondary to fibrosis, cerebral abcess
tumors
intracranial hemorrhage

14

acquired hydrocephalus by inflammation is caused frequently by

inflammation - meningitis secondary to fibrosis, cerebral abcess

15

acquired hydrocephalus by tumors is caused frequently by

ependymoma & medullablastoma

16

communicating hydrocephalus is due to

a blockage within the subarachnoid space

17

what kind of blockage can cause communicating hydrocephalus?

dural venous thrombosus

18

# 1 cause of cerebral infarction

embolism

19

which cerebral atery is most involved in embolism?

middle cerebral artery which is a direct extension of ICA

20

what type of infarct is one caused by embolism?

pale white anemic

21

what kind of infarct is caused by hypertension?

red hemmorragic

22

what is the 2nd leading cause of cerebral infarct?

ATH of the carotid, basilar, middle or cerebral artery

23

a detached mural thrombus from the _____ atrium will travel to

left
middle cerebral artery

24

types of cerebral herniation

subfalcine (cingulate)
uncinate (transtentorial)
tonsillar

25

subfalcine aka cingulate herniation is where

the cingulate gyrus ruptures and travels across the falx cerebri and ruptures the anterior cerebral arteries

26

uncinate AKA the transtentoral herniation is where

CN III is is affected
loss of consciousness
compression of aqueduct sylvius

27

CN III compression by uncinate herniation will present clincally as

dilaiton of pupil, impaired eye movement on same side resulting in suqinting of eyes, eyes move seperately and parasympathetic disruption

28

tonsilar herniation is when

the cerebrllar tonsils go through the foramen magnum --> compression of the medulla and cardiorespiratory center leading to death

29

types of infections of the nervous system

leptomeningitis
brain abcess
encephalitis

30

3 types of meningitis

acute purulent
acute lymphocytic
chronic meningitis

31

acute purulent type of fluid

pus --> cloudy

32

acute purulent type of etiology

hemophilus influenza
meningococcus
streptoccocus pnemoniae
E coli and strept agalactae

33

hemophilus influenza infects?

infants and children

34

hemophilus influenza kind of gram stain and shape?

negative bacillus (rod)

35

how long is infant protected from hemophilus influenza by mothers antobodies?

6 months

36

meningococcus affects who?

adolescents and young children

37

meningococcus is spread by

droplets from the nasocavity

38

streptoccocus pneumonia

infants and elderly affected

39

streptoccocus pnemoniae kind of stain and shape?

gram positive and coccus

40

E coli and strept agalactiae is what kind of infection

a neonatal infection

41

E coli and strept agalactiae gram stain and shape?

Gram + and cocci

42

meningococcus is neisseria is

really bad to get

43

which leptominigitis virus causes cerebral hemmorhages?

streptoccocus pnemoniae

44

acute lymphocytic meningitis

viruses with increased lymphocytes in lumbar puncture

45

types of acute lymphocytic meningitis

enteroviruses (mumps, coxsackieviruses, poliomyelitis)
HIV

46

chronic meningitis

TB
Trponema pallidum (syphilis)
brucella and
fungi - cyptococcus neoformans with AIDS

47

TB bacteria name

microbacterium tuberculosis

48

microbacterium tuberculosis type of stain and shape

acid fast bacilis

49

glucose will be reduced in both _____ & _____ types of meningitis

actue purulent and chronic

50

viral encaphalitis types

1. Herpes simplex encephalitis
2. Rabies
3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measels)
4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

51

Most common cause of encephalitis in USA

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

52

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis site

Temporal lobe and inferior parts of frontal lobe
Intranuclear inclusion bodies, Cowdry type A

53

rabies transmission through

saliva

54

rabies sites

Basal Ganglia,
Hippocampus,
Brain stem,
Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, Negri bodies

55

Subacute Sclerosing Pan-Encephalitis: transmission

Several years after measles attack (latent form)  most often in children

56

Subacute Sclerosing Pan-Encephalitis: sites

- Cerebral grey matter (sensory or motor)
Frontal lobe --> dementia
BasalGanglia
Intranuclear inclusion bodies

57

etiology of intracranial hemorrhage

1. Trauma: blunt (car accidents) or penetrating wounds (bullets)
2. Rupture of blood vessel (congenital abnormality, hypertension, aneurysm)
3. Coagulation defects

58

INTRACRAINIAL HEMORRHAGE types

1. Epidural hematoma
2. Subdural hematoma
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
4. Intracerebral hemorrhage

59

epidural hematoma is caused by

trauma & FX. to the middle meningeal artery or others.

60

epidural hematoma is located

between the skull and dura matter

61

Subdural hematoma

due to trauma but not a FX.

62

Subdural hematoma is what kind of bleed?

venous - bridging veins

63

Subdural hematoma can be seen more in

elderly and alcoholics due to cerebral atrophy

64

Subdural hematoma acute is where

bleeding is severe and associated with severe trauma such as brain lacerations

65

Subdural hematoma chronic is with

minor trauma and very slow bleed that leads to a clot formation

66

after a few day the clot in a subdural hematoma will

disintegrate and attract CSF causing expansion and slow compression on the brain

67

subarachnoid hemorrhage

ruptured berry aneurysm at the branching of the circle of Willis
due too >
hypertension, ATH, exercise can predispose the rupture of aneurysm

68

cerebral hemorrhage most common cause

hypertension causes the Charcot Bouchard micro aneurysms in Lenticulo striate branches of middle cerebral artery to rupture

69

cerebral hemorrhage sites

basal ganglia
thalamus
and internal capsule
germinal matrix of premies
choroid

70

what can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage

berry aneurysm
MVA
AVM > tumors
coagulopathy
herpes
strep

71

what are negri bodies

intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies of present with rabies