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Flashcards in CNS Tumors Deck (51)
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1

What are the 3 types of gliomas?

astrocytomas
oligodendrogliomas
ependymoma

2

Are most tumors of the CNS primary or metastatic?

metastatic - 70%!

3

What is the most common primary brain tumor in adults?

glioblastoma multiforme

4

What are the general characteristics of a metastatic tumor to the brain?

generally well circumscribed
often multiple
usually located in junction between gray and white matter

5

What are the general characteristics of a primary brain tumor?

poorly circumscribed
usually single
location varies by type

6

Where do metastatic brain tumors often come from?

lung, bladder, breast, melanoma and others

7

What does pleomorphic mean?

It means the cells come in many different odd shapes - it's generally not a good sign

8

How common are CNS tumors in children? Which are most common in children?

In general, CNS tumors are the 2nd most common neoplasia in children

medulloblastoma and astrocytoma are the most common types

9

As for the location in the CNS, where do adult CNS tumors occur and where to childhood CNS tumors occur?

children - 70% posterior foss
adults - 70% supratentorial

10

What does the WHO base it's grading scale on?

mostly histological appearance

11

What are the 4 WHO grades?

1 - low proliferative potential, possible to cure wiht resection
2 - infiltrative, but low proliferative activity
3- evidence of malignancy = nuclear atypia and much mitotitc activity
4 - cytologically malignant, mitotically active, necrosis prone

12

What are the survival estimates for grade 2, 3, and 4?

2 = greater than 5 years
3: 2-3 years
4 = depends on treatment, but often not more than a year

13

What do gliomas arise from?

ASTROCYTES
oligodencrocytes
ependymal cells

14

what is the highest-grade astrocytoma?

glioblastoma

15

What are the most common symptoms of a glioma

it depends on location of tumor obviously, but headaches, seizures, memory loss and changes in behavior are common

16

What do you call a grade 1 astrocytoma?

pilocytic astrocytoma
(low proliferative potential)

17

Are pilocytic astrocytomas more common in chidlren or adults, and where in the brain d they usually occur?

children - frequently posterior fossa - cerebellum

18

What are the morphologic features of pilocytic astrocytomas?

ofen cystic
bipolar cells with long hair-like processes
rosenthal fibers****
biphasic

19

What genetic point is associated with pilocytic astrocytoma?

a BRAF and KIAA fusion/duplication - diagnosed with FISH
they have a worse prognosis

20

What is a grade 2 astrocytoma?

diffuse astrocytoma

21

What is the main characteristic of a diffuse astrocytoma?

it's actually very slowly progressive, but it will almost always eventually become anaplastic

22

Which type of diffuse astrocytoma is most likely to progress to a grade 3?

gemistocytic astrocytoma

23

What is the grade 3 astrocytoma called?

anaplastic astrocytoma

24

What are the characteristics of an anaplastic astrocytoma?

Starting to be much more cellular and pleomorphic. Often has GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) as an intermediate filament

25

What is a grade 4 astrocytoma?

a blioglastoma

26

What are the usual signs and symptoms of a GBM?

slowly profressiv neuro defect, headache, symptoms of increased ICP - headaches, nausea, vomiting, cognitive impariemtn, seizures

27

What age group in particular developes GBMs?

60-69 is the most common

28

Are oligodendrogliomas usually in adults or kids?

adults

29

How do patients with oligodendrogliomas usually present?

with seizures

30

What is the mean survival for an oligodendroglioma?

5-10 years