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Neuro Block 5 > Speech and Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Speech and Language Deck (26)
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1

For what percentage of people is language lateralized to th left hemisphere?


90% of right handers

60% of left handers (the other 40% - half are left dominant and the other are bilateral)

2

What are the 3 overlappin gocmponents of language?


comprehension

interpretation

expression

3


Given what we know about sign language, what are the "language regions" of the brain actually specizlied in?


more of a symbolic representation of communication as opposed to words

4

What are the three rules that define a language?


grammar: define symbol use

syntax: the organization of the symbols

prosody: allow emotional emphasis via changes in pitch intensity and rhythm

5


Where does the primary language pathway begin and end?


starts with auditory and visual cortices sending information to Wernicke's area

the arcuate fasciculus takes information from Wernicke's to Broca's area

output from Broca's area goes to the motor cortex for initiateion of the complex muscle movements necsesary for speech

6

Where is Gershwin's territory and what function is it associated with?


It's in the inferior parietal lobe

receives both audiotry and visual info

involved with recognition and labelling of items

7


While the left brain is usually the dominant hemisphere for language, what other major function is usually mediated by the right hemisphere?


emotion

8


THe right hemisphere equivalent of Wernicke's area is responsible for what aspect of speech?


prosody

9


What is the fundamental pitch of a perons' voice determined by?

Gender, size and age

all these things affect the side of the vocal folds, which alters resonance

10

HOw are different voharwles produced?


by altering the shape of the vocal tract by moveing the tounge, pharynx, and vocal folds

11


How are different consonants generated?


closing and opening of the focal folds and changing the shape of the mouth

12


About how many speech sounds can humans generate? What are these called?


there are about 200

these are called phones

13


What is the term for the perception of phones?


phonemes

14


How many words does the average person have in their working memory and how many words can the average person recognize?


working vocabulary = 10,000 words (about double for doctors)

recognize 100,000!

15

What are neurogenic speech disorders?


They're speech disorders defined as an inability to exchange information with others due to a NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPAIRMENT

(aphasias)

16


How are aphasias categorized?


fluent or nonfluent

(further by auditory and verbal comrpehension and verbal and graphic expression)

17


Describe a fluent aphasia


it's when th epatient has no problem generating speech, the speech just is conprehensivle and they can't understand the speech of others

18


Describe a nonfluent aphasia


patient can comprehens things fine, but can't produce speech

19

What is receptive aphasia?


it's wernicke's aphasia

it is characterized by a severe deficit in auditory and written comprehension

they have fluid speech, but it's complete nonsense

usually not frustrating bec. the patient doesn't realize it

20


What is a conduction aphasia?


it's a fluent aphasia

It's an issue with the arcuiate fasciculus connection between Broca's and Wernicke's

they ahve good comprehension and aare able to produce speech, but have lots of pauses and gaps as they try to figure out the words they want

21

What happens in an expressive aphasia?


this is Broca's aphasia

they can comprehend perfectly, but you have impaired verbal and oral expression - especially with organization and control of speech.

super frustrating  because they can know what they want to say and just can't get the words out

22


What happens in a global aphasia?


when you have large areas of damage and deficits in both comprehension and expression

(usually with other deficits as well)

23


What is aprosody?


occurs with right sided equivalent of Wernicke's and Broca's aphasias

you lose prosody of your own speech and you can't comprehend the prosody of other people's speech

24


What happens in an apraxia?

It's an inability to translate speech plans into motor output (usually in children without any obvious issue on MRI)

the most obvious symptom is the inability to string phones together in the correct order to make a word and they'll say the word differently every time - making different mistakes

25

What happens in a dysarthria?


it's a lack of motor control over the movements necessary for production of speech

usually from damage in the CNS or PNS - not the larynx of vocal folds

26