Flashcards in AEDs Deck (27)
Treatment of seizures typically tries to affect what 2 transmitters?
decreased effectiveness of GLU
increase effectiveness of GABA
What is the mechanism of action for carbamazepine?
It stabilizes the "inactivated" state of VG Na+ channels to decrease repetitive firing
What is the main therpauetic use of carbamazepine?
grand mal seizures
What are some side effects of carbamazepine
2. gait instability
3. inducer of cyp450
What is the mechanism of action for ethosuximide?
It blocks the T-type voltage gated calcium channels in postynaptic thalamic neurons
What is the main therapeutic use of ethosuximide?
What are the side effects of ethosuximide?
What is the mechanism of action for levetiracetam?
It affects synaptic vesicle protein (SV2A), resulting in decreased GLU release, but increased GABA release!
What is the main therapeutic use of leviteracitam
What is the kinetic order for levitiracetam?
What are some side effects of levetiracetam?
What is the mechanism of action for topiramate?
increased inactivation of VG Na+ channels
- blocks presynaptic type N and typ P/Q VG Ca2+ channels
What is the main therapeutic use for topiramate?
partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
great for monotherapy
What are some side effects of topiramate?
parasthesias, anorexia, idiosyncratic glaucoma, stones, cognitive slowing
What is the mechanism of action for phenytoin?
It prolongs the inactivation of VG Na+ channels, preventing rapid firing of action potentials
What is the main therapeutic use for phenytoin?
Generalized tonic clonic seizures
What is critical to know about the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin?
It has zero order kinetics, so when the metabolizing enzymes are saturated, even small dose changes will cause large changes in drug concentration, increasing toxicity without added benefit
so if phenytoin isn't working for someone, just switch them to a new drug - don't increase dose
What are some side effects of phenytoin?
induction of cyp450 and protein binding leads to drug interactions
What is the mechanism of action for tiagabine?
Inhibits reuptake of GABA via GAT1, thus increasing the amount of GABA available to postsynaptic neurons
What is the therapeutic use for tiagabine?
What are the size effects of tiagabine?
What is the mechanism of action for valproic acid?
blocks VG Na+ channels, blocks NMDA receptors, decreases GABA reuptake
What is the main therapeutic use for valproic acid?
absence seizures - especially when combined with some generalized tonic/clonic
What are the main side effects of valproic acid?
Drug interactions with other anticonvulsants because it decreases liver metabolism
Hepatotoxicity - can be fatal
Teratogenic (inhibits HDAC)
What is the mechanism of action for gabapentin?
It's a GABA analog, but blocks VG Ca2+ channels
What barbiturate is used to treat seizure?