Cognition Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Sciences > Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition Deck (10):
1

Cognition

---A field of study that attempts to understand brain's
perception of information overload and its response
---Attempted to be explained by Information
Processing Model

2

Information Processing Model

A model that sets human cognition parallel to a computer in order to explain the functioning of human thinking

4 Tennets:
1. Stimuli must be sensed, encoded and sensed in
order to be thought about
2. Stimuli must be analyzed by the brain in order to
effectively aid decision making
3. Decisions made in one context can be
extrapolated to allow problem solving in other
arenas
4. Problem solving depends on cognition of the
problem-solver and the context and complexity of
a problem

3

Cognitive Development

Definition
1. The ability to think and problem-solve; developed
across the life-span
Stages:
1. Mastering the physical environment
2. Learning abstract thinking
3. Learning social skills
Limits:
1. Age
2. Extent of working memory and mental capacities
Influenced by:
1. Culture
2. Biological factors
A. Aging
3. Medical Problems
A. Organic brain disorders---dementia
B. Genetic & Chromosomal disorders--down-
-syndrome
C. Metabolic Derangements
D. Delirium resulting from elevated BP, infection,
pain, electrolyte & pH disturbance
E. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
3. Psychological Factors
A. Substance Abuse
B. Antisocial personality disorder
3. Environmental Factors
A. Chemical exposure
B. Injury & Trauma

4

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Piaget, an influential figure in developmental psychology, noticed difference b/w cognition of adults and children; therefore, he divided cognition development into 4 stages across the life-span.

1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal Operational


***According to Piaget, completion of each stage is integral to progression to other stages****

5

Cognitive Development Terminology

1. Schema: ---organized pattern of behavior & thoughts
2. Adaptation---Incorporation of new information into
previously existing schemas
3. Assimilation---Addition of new information into
previously mastered schemas
4. Accomodation---Modification of previously mastered
schemas to encompass new info

6

Piaget's Perception of Learning

1. An infant learns through instinctive interaction with the environment
2. Given that there are schemas for any type of behavior, children learn to adapt new info to the schemas they have mastered
3. Adaptation occurs through either Assimilation or
Accomodation

7

Senorimotor Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Stages

1---Stage that starts with manipulation of the physical environmental to have needs met.
2---Continues with 2 circular reactions
1. Primary Circular Rxn ----
I. Repetition of actions involving body-parts b/c
infant finds them soothing---
II. ex. sucking thumb
2. Secondary Circular Rxn
I. Repetitive actions involving external stimuli
b/c infant sees a response
II. ex. throwing a toy and having a parent pick it
up
3----Ends with establishment of object permanence and
w/ start of representational thought

****Lasts from 0 - 2 y.o.****

8

Preoperational Stage of Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development

Stage that is characterized by
1. Symbolic thought--
A. ability to pretend & imagine
2. Egocentrism
A. inability to think about other's thought or
feeling
3. Centration
A. Inability to understand conservation
B. Inability to focus on more than one aspect of a
situation at a time

*****Lasts from 2-7******

9

Concrete Operation Stage of Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development

Stage in which child is unable to think abstractly even though has gained the ability to reason logically, understand conservation and perspective of others

*****Lasts from 7-11****

10

Formal Operational Stage of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Stage that is marked by ability to problem-solve and the ability to think and reason about abstract concepts

****Starts from 11-******