Motivation 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Motivation 5 Deck (25):
1

Motivation

Definition
-Driving force behind actions
Type:
-1. Extrinsic Motivation
I. ex. rewards/punishments
-2. Intrinsic Motivation
I. ex. interest/enjoyment

2

Motivation Theories

1. Instinct
2. Arousal
3. Drive-Reduction
4. Need-Based
5. Incentive
6. Expectancy-Value
7. Opponent-Process
8. Sexual-Motivation

3

Instinct

Automatic, fixed patterns of behaviors displayed in response to stimuli

Ex. Grasp reflex of babies

4

Instinct Theory of Motivation

1. People:
I. William James: developer
II. William McDougal: proponent
2. Idea:
I. Human actions and behaviors are driven by 20
physical & 17 mental instincts

5

Arousal

The physical and psychological state of being awake and reactive to stimuli

6

Arousal Theory of Motivation

1. Idea
I. People perform actions to
A. maintain an optimal level of arousal
B. increase arousal if lower than the optimal level
C. decrease arousal if higher than optimal level
II. A relationship exists b/w level of arousal and
quality of performance- (Yerkes-Dodson Law)--
displayed by a U-shaped curve
III. Optimal level of arousal depends on nature of task
A. High arousal is appropriate for physically
enduring activities
B. Relatively lower arousal level is appropriate for
highly complex cognitive tasks

7

Drive

1. Definition:
An internal tension with a state of discomfort that
activates a particular set of behaviors
2. Types:
I. Primary
A. ex. Hunger/cold===>inc metabolism to restore
homeostasis
II. Secondary
A. ex. desire for love & achievement

8

Drive-Reduction Theory

1. Idea
People engage in behaviors/actions to eliminate their
uncomfortable internal state of tension

9

Need

1. Definition:
A. A motivator that influences behavior
2. Types:
A. Maslow's Pyramid of Needs
I. Physiological
II. Safety/security
III. Belonging & Love
IV. Self-Esteem
V. Self-Actualization
B. Universal Needs
I. Autonomy
II. Competence
III. Relatedness

10

Range of Physiological Needs

The need for
1. Food
2. Water
3. Homeostasis
4. Excretion
5. Sex
6. Sleep

11

Range of Safety/Security Needs

Need for security of
1. Body
2.Health
3. Job
4. Property
5. Resources
6. Family
7. Morality

12

Range of Love/Belonging Needs

Need for
1. Friendship
2. Family
3. Sexual Intercourse

13

Range of Self-esteem Needs

Need for
1. Self-esteem
2. Confidence
3. Achievement
4. Other's respect

14

Range of Self-Actualization Needs

Need for trusting one's ability in accomplishing difficult tasks, i.e.:
1. Problem solving
2. Creativity
3. Acceptance of facts
4. Lack of Prejudice
5. Morality
6. Spontaneity

15

Autonomy

The ability to be in control of one's own actions and ideas

16

Competence

The ability to complete and excel at difficult tasks

17

Relatedness

The ability to feel accepted and needed in relationships

18

Need-Based Theories

1. Idea
A. Humans engage in actions and behaviors that
satisfy their needs
2. Types
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2. Self-Determination Theory

19

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation

One of the need based theories of motivation that explains humans attempt to satisfy their hierarchy of needs, a pyramid with 5 levels, each of which is assigned a level of priority

20

Self-Determination Theory of Motivation

A need-based theory of motivation that justifies human's actions in their attempt to satisfy their universal needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness

21

Incentive Theory of Motivation

Behavior is motivated by the desire to earn reward and the desire to avoid punishment

22

Expectancy-Value Theory of Motivation

Efforts and actions of an individual are functions of an individual's expectancy of succeeding in achieving a goal and the individual's perception of how valuable the goal is

23

Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation

Describes the reason behind continuous drug use as development of tolerance and withdrawal mechanism

24

Tolerance

Decreased sensitivity to a drug effect or other stimuli overtime

25

Sexual Motivation Theory of Motivation

Idea:
Human sexuality is influenced by
1. biological factors
A. Hormone Secretion [androgen, estrogen,
progesterone]
B. Smell
2. Cultural/Societal Norms
A. Type of sexual activity
B. Appropriate age
C. Sexual-partner
3. Perception of pleasure
4. Conditioning