Stress 5 Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Sciences > Stress 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stress 5 Deck (13):
1

Stress

Negative behavioral, psychological, physical, emotional & cognitive response to a challenging event that one perceives difficult to overcome after performing a Cognitive Appraisal

***Often results from having to readjust to change***

2

Cognitive Appraisal

--Subjective evaluation of a stressful situation
--Has 2 stages
1. Primary appraisal---eval of envi & threat
2. Secondary appraisal---eval of ability to cope w/
stress after considering
degree of :
1. harm
2. threat
3. challenge

3

Stressors

----Events that trigger stress
----Categorized as either 1. distressor or 2. eustressor

ex.
1. Psychological---Control, Pressure, Frustration,
Conflict, Predictability
2. Academic
3. Societal
4. Work-related
5. Biological
6. Environmental
7. Chemical

4

Pressure

Stressor experienced as a result of societal expectations and demands to complete tasks and perform actions that are aligned with societal standards

5

Frustrations

Events that interfere with one's ability to attain a goal
---either
1. Internal or 2. External

6

Conflict

Definition--psychological stressor raised upon making a
choice
Types
1. Approach-Approach---[choosing b/w 2 desirable
choices]
2. Avoidance-Avoidance---[choosing b/w 2 negative
choices]
3. Approach-Avoidance---[deals w/ one choice, goal or
decision, the outcomes of
which could have both
negative and positive elements]

7

Types of Response to Stressors

1. Psychological---General Adaptation Syndrome
2. Emotional & Behavioral

8

General Adaptation Syndrome

Sequence of psychological responses to a stressor, starting with
1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion

9

Alarm

The initial component of psychological response to a stressor that raises arousal and activates the sympathetic NS by
1. allowing the hypothalamus to stimulate the pituitary which in turn releases ACTH to stimulate release of cortisol by adrenal gland
2. stimulating the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine which activate SNS

10

Resistance

The second component of psychological response to stressors during which continued release of hormones and the action of SNS fight the negative effects of stressors

11

Exhaustion

Third component of psychological response to a stressor during which the body and SNS can no longer maintain their activity in fighting the negative effects of a stressor!

Soon, thereafter, the body suffers from
1. ulcers
2. increased BP
3. Organ disease & failures
& 4. Death in extreme cases

12

Emotional & Behavioral Responses to Stress

1. Depiction of emotional sx [irritability, moodiness, tension, fear, helplessness]
2. Depiction of behavioral problems [withdrawal, problems at work & school, substance abuse, aggression, suicide]
3. Depiction of cognitive problems [difficulty with memory and concentration]
4. Development of mental disorders such as depression & anxiety

13

Strategies for Coping with Stress

Types of Strategies:
1. Problem-focused---work to overcome stressor
I. Reaching out for social support
II. Confronting the issue
III. Creating and acting on a problem-solving plan
2. Emotion-focused---change feelings abt stressor
I. Taking responsibility
II. Engaging in self-control
III. Distracting oneself from stressor
IV. Engaging in wishful thinking
V. Engage in positive reappraisal of the outcome
3. Stress-Management
I. Exercising
2. Engaging in spiritual activities
3. Engaging in relaxation techniques
A. Meditation
B. Diaphragmatic breathing
C. Progressive Muscle Relaxation


***Stress-Management Strategies can be either
1. Adaptive or 2. Maladaptive [substance abuse]