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anatomy block 4 > cognition and language > Flashcards

Flashcards in cognition and language Deck (60):
1

Frontal and Parietal lobes

• Attention

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Parietal Lobes

Visuospatial

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Frontal and Temporal Lobes

Language

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• Executive function

Frontal Lobes

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Temporal and Frontal lobes

Memory

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• Area of cortex between frontal and occipital lobes

parietal lobe

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Principle regions of parietal lobe

• post-central gyrus • superior parietal lobule • supramarginal gyrus • angular gyrus

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Processes and integrates somatosensory and visual information

parietal lobe

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parietal lobes

Processes sensations

and guidance of movement

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"Gerstmann's Syndrome."

• Lesion usually in angular and supramarginal gyri

Left parietal lobe damage

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• right-left confusion, dysgraphia, dyscalculia

"Gerstmann's Syndrome."

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finger agnosia.

"Gerstmann's Syndrome."

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Right parietal lobe damage

Neglect of contralateral side of body or space

Difficulty making things (constructional apraxia)

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Denial of deficits (anosagnosia)

Right parietal lobe damage

15

• Sensory Thresholds • Prosopagnosia• 

other symptoms of parietal lobes damage

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• Inability to locate and recognize parts of the body or self

other symptoms of parietal lobes damage

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• Neglect of visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli on the side of the body opposite to the lesion

Contralateral Neglect

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defective sensation and perception and

defective attention

cause Contralateral Neglect

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Temporal Lobe

below the Sylvian fissure and anterior to occipital cortex

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Temporal lobe

amgydala, limbic cortex, and hippocampus

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Temporal Lobe

auditory and gustatory areas

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• Inputs from all sensory modalities, parietal and frontal lobes,

Temporal Lobe

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input from ventral visual stream, limbic structures and basal ganglia

Temporal Lobe

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Wernicke’s area

Temporal Lobe

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Comprehension of language

Wernicke’s area of temporal lobe

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Processing of auditory input

Primary auditory cortex of temporal lobe

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Learning and memory

Hippocampus and Amygdala of Temporal lobe

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• Lesion in superior temporal gyrus

Wernicke's Aphasia

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• Comprehension of speech is impaired

• Comprehension of speech is impaired

Wernicke's Aphasia

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Speech is: –

fluent but meaningless (word salad) –

devoid of any content –

neologisms

Wernicke's Aphasia

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Content ranges from mildly inappropriate to complete nonsense

Wernicke's Aphasia

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The ability to encode, store, retain, recall and recognize information

Memory

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Memory

duration of memories  and formation and retrieval of information

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Four types of memory based on

duration of retention

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Sensory memory •

200-500 ms after input is perceived

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– Working memory •

Focuses on the processing of briefly stored information

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– Short-term memory •

Holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

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Long-term memory •

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse

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Three stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:

Encoding storage retrieval

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• Processing and combining received information

encoding

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• Creation of a permanent record of the encoded information

storage

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• Calling back stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity

Recognition

Recall

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Hippocampus

Consolidates memories

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• Critical structure for explicit memory

hippocampus

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Hippocampus

Made permanent before stored elsewhere

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Hippocampus

curved sheet of cortex in the medial temporal lobe

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Hipocampus

amygdala to the splenium of the corpus callosum

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Hippocampus

Dentate gyrus

Subiculum

CA (cornu ammonis) subfields

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Entorhinal Cortex (EC)

Main input to HC and a target of hippocampal output

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severe anterograde amnesia

Bilateral removal of the hippocampus; patient was unable to form new memories of facts or events

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Bilateral removal of the hippocampus

• Past, early memories were intact

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• Mirror Drawing Task with Case of Patient HM

H.M.ʼs performance does improve on this task

BUT  Doesnʼt remember ever completing the task

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A collection of nuclei located at the anterior end of the hippocampus

Amygdala

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Efferents of amygdala

project to the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus

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Visceral inputs, particularly olfactory inputs, are especially prominent

to amygdala

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• Involved in memories of emotional, olfactory and visceral events

Amygdala

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Amygdala Sends impulses to hypothalamus for activation of the ---- ----- -----

sympathetic nervous system

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associating sensory stimuli with appropriate emotion response

and Also involved in sense of smell

amygdala

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Stroke in Hippocampus and/or Amygdala

• Profound memory impairments

 

Impaired ability to determine and identify emotional significance of stimuli or events