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Flashcards in cognition part 2 Deck (68):
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Stroke in Hippocampus and/or Amygdala

• Decreased emotional responses

 

Decreased responsiveness, aggression, fear, dominance and social interest

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All neural roads lead to the

frontal lobes”

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Frontal Lobe; All cortical tissue anterior to

central sulcus

A image thumb
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motor • premotor • prefrontal

functional distinct regions of frontal lobe

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Motor Movements Speech Production

Frontlal Lobe

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Planning Organizing Problem solving

 

Frontal Lobe

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Personality Behavior Emotions

Frontal Lobe

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Selective attention

Frontal Lobe

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• Primary motor cortex

Controls contralateral side of body • ‘motor homunculus’ •

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Primary motor cortex

voluntary, skilled movements

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• Premotor cortex

• sequencing, timing, and initiation of voluntary movements

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Brocha's area of Frontal Lobe

speech production

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Motor and pre-motor cortices of frontal lobe

direct control of movements through projections to spinal motor neurons and cranial nerve motor neurons

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Motor and pre-motor cortices of frontal lobe

also projects to basal ganglia

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lesion to Broca's Aphasia

Inability to speak fluently

Non-fluent speech

 Few words, short sentences, many pauses

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lesion to 

Broca's Aphasia

Words produced with effort and sound distorted • Repetition is impaired

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lesion to Broca's Aphasia

Repetition is impaired •

Comprehension is relatively intact • Awareness of mistakes

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Prefrontal Cortex: Executive Functions of Frontal Lobe

effective and efficient goal-directed behavior; organization of behavior & cognition

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Prefrontal Cortex of Frontal Lobe

Initiating - Inhibiting and Judgment

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- Planning and organizing

and problem solving

Prefrontal Cortex

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Selective attention

- Self-monitoring

Prefrontal Cortex

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Abstract thinking and mental flexibility

Prefrontal Cortex:

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frontal lobe lesion

Short-term memory impairment

• Loss of flexible thinking

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Poor response inhibition

Damage to the Frontal Lobe

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Inappropriate social & sexual behavior

Damage to the Frontal Lobe

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Impaired judgment, abstract thinking, hypothesis testing and planning

Damage to the Frontal Lobe

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• Difficulties using cues and information from the environment to direct, control, or change behavior

Damage to the Frontal Lobe

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Occiptal lobe Separated from parietal and temporal lobes

by parieto-occiptal sulcus

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Primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17,

Occipital lobe

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Posterior pole of cerebral hemispheres

Occipital Lobe

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Dorsal stream of occipital lobe

visual information to posterior parietal cortex

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Dorsal stream of occipital lobe

“where”

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Ventral stream  of occipital lobe

visual information to inferotemporal cortex

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Ventral stream of occipital lobe

what

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Can only perceive movement through a compilation of still images as if watching the world through a strobe light

Akinetopsia

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Akinetopsia

inability to perceive motion

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brain damage disrupting input to the dorsal pathway (V5/MT).

Akinetopsia

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Occipital Lobe Dysfunction

Visual agnosia, Prosopagnosia,Akinetopsia

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inability recognize an object

Visual agnosia

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Prosopagnosia

inability to recognize faces including their own

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Agnosia?

• Inability of the brain to process or make use of sensory stimuli

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Sensory perception of the stimulus is disconnected from memories associated with the stimulus

Agnosia

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strokes, dementia, carbon monoxide poisoning cause

Agnosia

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agnosia not same as

blind or deaf

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Auditory Agnosia

Inability to recognize sounds

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Inability to perceive objects through tactile stimulation

Somatosensory Agnosia

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Difficultly recognizing objects, faces and words

Visual agnosia

occipital disfunction

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Cannot sort pictures or objects into categories and – Cannot name objects 

Visual agnosia

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Visual agnosia

Prosopagnosia

Akinetopsia

Occipital Lobe Dysfunction

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Prosopagnosia

Severe disturbance in the ability to recognize faces

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Lesions of inferior and medial occipital lobe

Prosopagnosia

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Recognition of facial parts is intact

Prosopagnosia

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Prosopagnosia

• Accurate judgments about gender, age and emotion are still intact and can recall detailed information about a specific individual

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Language is

any system for representing and communicating ideas

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speech

particular audible manner of communicating language

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Broca’s area –

production of area

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Wernicke’s area –

Comprehension of language

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Wernicke-Geschwind Model

Neural Basis of Language

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Wernicke-Geschwind Model

Comprehension – Production – Reading

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When we listen to speech, words are send via pathways to primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus);

relayed to Wernicke’s area(Comprehension)

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Broca’s area

holds representations for articulating words –

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broca's area(language production)

Instructions are sent to facial area of motor cortex -> facial motor neurons in brain stem

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Reading;Information is sent to visual areas 17, 18 and 19

– Goes to angular gyrus -> Wernicke’s area

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Wada Test

Sodium amytal, an anesthetic, is injected into the right or left carotid artery

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Wada test

If the left hemisphere is put to sleep in people who have language ability in the left hemisphere

person cannot speak

68

if right hemisphere is put to sleep, then will be able to speak

with anestiic in left hemisphere

person can still talk

69

Identifying Language Areas;

Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex on left side

left side dominance language will be disrupted with electrode stimulation