Cognition: Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognition: Thinking Deck (15):
1

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

2

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

Concept

3

A mental image or best example of a category. Is a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

Prototype

4

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error prone- use of heuristics

Algorithm

5

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms

Heuristics

6

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

Insight

7

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

Creativity

8

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

Confirmation bias

9

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

Fixation

10

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

Mental set

11

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

Functional fixedness

12

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant info

Representativeness heuristic

13

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come to mind, we presume such events are common

Availability heuristic

14

The tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

Overconfidence

15

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

Belief perseverance