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Flashcards in States Of Consciousness Deck (68):

What is "consciousness"?

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment


What is "circadian rhythm"?

The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur in a 24-hour cycle


What is a "suprachiasmatic nucleus"?

Grain sized clusters in nucleus that cause the pineal gland to stop releasing melatonin


What are "beta waves"?

The brain waves of a person that is awake (the normal brain waves)


What are "alpha waves"?

Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake person


What is "sleep"?

Periodic, natural loss of consciousness; as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation


What are "hallucinations"?

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus


What is "Stage 1 sleep"?

Your alpha waves transition into more irregular waves (theta waves) and your breathing slows


What is "Stage 2 sleep"?

You relax more deeply, sleep spindles and k-complexes occur, theta waves occur


What is "Stage 3 sleep"?

The transitional stage, large delta waves begin


What is "Stage 4 sleep"?

Deep sleep; delta waves happen; it is hard to awaken during this stage


What is "REM sleep?"

"Rapid Eye Movement" sleep; a recurring sleep stage where vivid dreams commonly occur; also called paradoxical sleep because muscles are relaxed


What is "insomnia"?

Recurring problems in falling and staying asleep


What is "narcolepsy"?

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks; lapsing into REM sleep at inopportune times


What is "sleep apnea"?

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and momentarily awakenings occur


What are "night terrors"?

Sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance o being terrified; occur during Stage 4 sleep; are seldom remembered


What are "dreams"?

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind; known for hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities; and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembers


What is "manifest content"?

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream


What is "latent content"?

The underlying meaning of a dream


What is "REM rebound"?

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep


What is the "Activation-Synthesis" dream theory?

That the brain attempts to make sense of the neural activity spreading upward from the brainstem; that REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our brain weaves into stories


What is the "Memory Making" sleep theory?

That sleep restores and rebuilds memories from the day when you sleep


What is the "Feeds Creative Thinking" sleep theory?

That sleep inspires literary, artistic, and scientific achievements; boosts thinking and learning; and helps you see connections when you sleep on things


What is the "Growth Process Role" sleep theory?

That the pituitary gland releases growth hormones when we sleep


What is "Freud's Wish-Fulfillment" dream theory?

That dreams provide a "psychic safety value"- expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contains manifest content and a deeper layer of latent content


What is the "Information-Processing" dream theory?

That dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidates or memories


What is the "Protection" sleep theory?

That sleep is evolutionary, we slept when we did in the past to stay out of danger at night


What is the "Recuperation" sleep theory?

Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue when you are unconscious


What is the "Cognitive Development" dream theory?

That dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development-their knowledge and understanding.


What is the "Physiological Function" dream theory?

That regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways


What is "hypnosis"?

A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur


What is "posthypnotic suggestion"?

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors


What is "dissociation"?

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others


What is "hypnotic ability?"

The ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it


What are "psychoactive drugs"?

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses


What is "tolerance"?

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect


What is "withdrawal"?

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug


What is "physical dependence"?

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued


What is "psychological dependence"?

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions


What is "addiction?

the compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences


What are "depressants"?

Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions


What is "alcohol"?

A depressant that depresses part of the brain that controls good judgment/behavior; gives initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition; but can cause depression, memory loss, organ damage, and impaired reactions


What are "barbiturates"?

A "tranquilizer" that depress the activity of the central nervous system; reducing anxiety and impairs memory and judgment


What are "opiates"?

Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety, and produce euphoria


What is "morphine"?

The most effective pain killer (a barbiturate), is addictive


What is "heroin"?

Most strong barbiturate, usually injected; gives rush of euphoria and relief from pain; but can cause depressed physiology, and agonizing withdrawal


What are "stimulants"?

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions


What is "caffeine"?

The most used stimulant; doesn't produce much buzz but creates energy; can cause anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses, uncomfortable withdrawal


What is "Methamphetamine"?

"Crystal meth"; a nickname is "speed", has negative impacts on all parts of your body; causes euphoria, alertness, and energy; but causes irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures


What is "amphetamine"?

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes


What is "cocaine"?

"Crack" gives you a rush of euphoria, confidence, energy; but but can cause cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, and a depressive crash


What is "nicotine"?

Can cause arousal and relaxation, a sense of well-being; but can cause heart disease and cancer


What is "ecstasy"?

A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition. Causes emotional elevation, disinhibition, dehydration, overheating, depressed mood, impaired cognitive and immune functioning


What are "hallucinogens"?

Psychedelic (mind altering) drugs, such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input; makes people feel separated from body in a dreamlike state that could cause pain and self harm


What is "LSD?

Lysergic acid diethylamide; a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid; effects varies from euphoria to detachment to panicked emotions


What is "THC"?

The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations; disinhibits, relaxes, ad may cause a euphoric high;amplifies sensitivity to colors, smells, tastes, and sounds and intensifies feelings


What is "marijuana"?

A mild hallucinogen that causes enhanced sensation, relief of pain, distortion of time, relaxation; also causes impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, and lung damage from the smoke


What is a "near-death experience"?

An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations


What are some social-cultural influences on drug use?

The cultural attitude about drugs, urban/city environment, peer influence, who you hang with, what you believe your friends or people in general favor


What are some biological influences on drug use?

Genetic predisposition, variations in neurotransmitter systems


What are some psychological influences on drug use?

Lack of self purpose, significant stress, psychological disorders, and abused people


What is the social influence theory about hypnosis?

The hypnotic phenomena are an extension of everyday social behavior, not something unique to hypnosis


Describe how the study of consciousness has changed throughout the history of psychology.

Durin the jest half of the twentieth century, the difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness led many psychologists-including behaviorists- to turn to direct observations of behaviors. By 1960s they nearly lost consciousness and described it as the science of behavior, after 1960, began to reemerge


Explain how sleep relates to biological rhythms.

Sleep relates by it has four stages of nREM sleep and REM sleep, we have circadian rhythm which is 24 hour day


Explain how the EEG can be used to determine sleep stages and describe nREM sleep and REM sleep

Awake=beta rhythms
Relaxed=alpha rhythms
Stage 1 & 2= theta rhythms, k complex, spindles
Stage 3 & 4= delta
Rem= crazy all over rhythms


Describe the impact of sleep deprivation on normal functioning.

Ruin immune system, brain's function, increases hungers hormone which makes you fat and eat more


Critique the theories on sleeping and dreaming

Sleep: they all make sense in a way
Dream: Freud's: lack of scientific support and misinterpretations, info processing: dreams about inexperienced things, psychological: doesn't explain why we have meaningful dreams , activation: brain weaves stories, cognitive: doesn't address neuroscience of dreams


Hypnosis beliefs

With pain: you still have it it just doesn't get to the reactors of the pain
Doesn't help us recall memories because hypnotists suggest memories