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Psychology > States Of Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in States Of Consciousness Deck (68):
1


What is "consciousness"?

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

2

What is "circadian rhythm"?

The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur in a 24-hour cycle

3

What is a "suprachiasmatic nucleus"?

Grain sized clusters in nucleus that cause the pineal gland to stop releasing melatonin

4

What are "beta waves"?

The brain waves of a person that is awake (the normal brain waves)

5

What are "alpha waves"?

Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake person

6

What is "sleep"?

Periodic, natural loss of consciousness; as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

7

What are "hallucinations"?

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

8

What is "Stage 1 sleep"?

Your alpha waves transition into more irregular waves (theta waves) and your breathing slows

9

What is "Stage 2 sleep"?

You relax more deeply, sleep spindles and k-complexes occur, theta waves occur

10

What is "Stage 3 sleep"?

The transitional stage, large delta waves begin

11

What is "Stage 4 sleep"?

Deep sleep; delta waves happen; it is hard to awaken during this stage

12

What is "REM sleep?"

"Rapid Eye Movement" sleep; a recurring sleep stage where vivid dreams commonly occur; also called paradoxical sleep because muscles are relaxed

13

What is "insomnia"?

Recurring problems in falling and staying asleep

14

What is "narcolepsy"?

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks; lapsing into REM sleep at inopportune times

15

What is "sleep apnea"?

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and momentarily awakenings occur

16

What are "night terrors"?

Sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance o being terrified; occur during Stage 4 sleep; are seldom remembered

17

What are "dreams"?

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind; known for hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities; and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembers

18

What is "manifest content"?

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

19

What is "latent content"?

The underlying meaning of a dream

20

What is "REM rebound"?

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep

21

What is the "Activation-Synthesis" dream theory?

That the brain attempts to make sense of the neural activity spreading upward from the brainstem; that REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our brain weaves into stories

22

What is the "Memory Making" sleep theory?

That sleep restores and rebuilds memories from the day when you sleep

23

What is the "Feeds Creative Thinking" sleep theory?

That sleep inspires literary, artistic, and scientific achievements; boosts thinking and learning; and helps you see connections when you sleep on things

24

What is the "Growth Process Role" sleep theory?

That the pituitary gland releases growth hormones when we sleep

25

What is "Freud's Wish-Fulfillment" dream theory?

That dreams provide a "psychic safety value"- expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contains manifest content and a deeper layer of latent content

26

What is the "Information-Processing" dream theory?

That dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidates or memories

27

What is the "Protection" sleep theory?

That sleep is evolutionary, we slept when we did in the past to stay out of danger at night

28

What is the "Recuperation" sleep theory?

Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue when you are unconscious

29

What is the "Cognitive Development" dream theory?

That dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development-their knowledge and understanding.

30

What is the "Physiological Function" dream theory?

That regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways

31

What is "hypnosis"?

A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

32

What is "posthypnotic suggestion"?

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

33

What is "dissociation"?

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

34

What is "hypnotic ability?"

The ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it

35

What are "psychoactive drugs"?

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses

36

What is "tolerance"?

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

37

What is "withdrawal"?

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

38

What is "physical dependence"?

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

39

What is "psychological dependence"?

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

40

What is "addiction?

the compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences

41

What are "depressants"?

Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

42

What is "alcohol"?

A depressant that depresses part of the brain that controls good judgment/behavior; gives initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition; but can cause depression, memory loss, organ damage, and impaired reactions

43

What are "barbiturates"?

A "tranquilizer" that depress the activity of the central nervous system; reducing anxiety and impairs memory and judgment

44

What are "opiates"?

Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety, and produce euphoria

45

What is "morphine"?

The most effective pain killer (a barbiturate), is addictive

46

What is "heroin"?

Most strong barbiturate, usually injected; gives rush of euphoria and relief from pain; but can cause depressed physiology, and agonizing withdrawal

47

What are "stimulants"?

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions

48

What is "caffeine"?

The most used stimulant; doesn't produce much buzz but creates energy; can cause anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses, uncomfortable withdrawal

49

What is "Methamphetamine"?

"Crystal meth"; a nickname is "speed", has negative impacts on all parts of your body; causes euphoria, alertness, and energy; but causes irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures

50

What is "amphetamine"?

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

51

What is "cocaine"?

"Crack" gives you a rush of euphoria, confidence, energy; but but can cause cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, and a depressive crash

52

What is "nicotine"?

Can cause arousal and relaxation, a sense of well-being; but can cause heart disease and cancer

53

What is "ecstasy"?

A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition. Causes emotional elevation, disinhibition, dehydration, overheating, depressed mood, impaired cognitive and immune functioning

54

What are "hallucinogens"?

Psychedelic (mind altering) drugs, such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input; makes people feel separated from body in a dreamlike state that could cause pain and self harm

55

What is "LSD?

Lysergic acid diethylamide; a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid; effects varies from euphoria to detachment to panicked emotions

56

What is "THC"?

The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations; disinhibits, relaxes, ad may cause a euphoric high;amplifies sensitivity to colors, smells, tastes, and sounds and intensifies feelings

57

What is "marijuana"?

A mild hallucinogen that causes enhanced sensation, relief of pain, distortion of time, relaxation; also causes impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, and lung damage from the smoke

58

What is a "near-death experience"?

An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

59

What are some social-cultural influences on drug use?

The cultural attitude about drugs, urban/city environment, peer influence, who you hang with, what you believe your friends or people in general favor

60

What are some biological influences on drug use?

Genetic predisposition, variations in neurotransmitter systems

61

What are some psychological influences on drug use?

Lack of self purpose, significant stress, psychological disorders, and abused people

62

What is the social influence theory about hypnosis?

The hypnotic phenomena are an extension of everyday social behavior, not something unique to hypnosis

63

Describe how the study of consciousness has changed throughout the history of psychology.

Durin the jest half of the twentieth century, the difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness led many psychologists-including behaviorists- to turn to direct observations of behaviors. By 1960s they nearly lost consciousness and described it as the science of behavior, after 1960, began to reemerge

64

Explain how sleep relates to biological rhythms.

Sleep relates by it has four stages of nREM sleep and REM sleep, we have circadian rhythm which is 24 hour day

65

Explain how the EEG can be used to determine sleep stages and describe nREM sleep and REM sleep

Awake=beta rhythms
Relaxed=alpha rhythms
Stage 1 & 2= theta rhythms, k complex, spindles
Stage 3 & 4= delta
Rem= crazy all over rhythms

66

Describe the impact of sleep deprivation on normal functioning.

Ruin immune system, brain's function, increases hungers hormone which makes you fat and eat more

67

Critique the theories on sleeping and dreaming

Sleep: they all make sense in a way
Dream: Freud's: lack of scientific support and misinterpretations, info processing: dreams about inexperienced things, psychological: doesn't explain why we have meaningful dreams , activation: brain weaves stories, cognitive: doesn't address neuroscience of dreams

68

Hypnosis beliefs

With pain: you still have it it just doesn't get to the reactors of the pain
Doesn't help us recall memories because hypnotists suggest memories