Flashcards in Learning Deck (43):
What is "learning"?
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
What is "habituation"?
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
What is "associative learning"?
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence
What is "conditioning"?
Process of learning associations
What is "classical conditioning"?
Learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events
What is "operant conditioning"?
behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
What is "observational learning"?
To learn from others' experiences
What is a "unconditioned response"? (UR)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
What is "unconditioned stimulus"? (US)
A stimulus that unconditionally (naturally) triggers a response
What is a "conditioned response"? (CR)
The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
What is "conditioned stimulus"? (CS)
An originally irrelevant stimulus that after an association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
What is acquisition?
In classical conditioning: when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering a conditioned response
In operant conditioning: the strengthening or reinforced response
What is high-order conditioning? (Also known as second order conditioning)
When a conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second but often weaker conditioned stimulus (a light signaling the tone, which signals the food for the dog to salivate)
What is extinction?
The diminishing response when the conditioned stimulus no longer signals an impending unconditioned stimulus
What is spontaneous recovery?
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
What is generalization?
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
What is discrimination?
Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
What is learned helplessness?
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
What is respondent behavior?
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
What is operant behavior?
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
What is the law of effect?
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
What is an operant chamber?
A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals' rate of bar pressing or key pecking
What is shaping?
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
What is a discriminative stimulus?
A stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
What is a reinforcer?
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
What is positive reinforcement?
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli; a stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response
What is negative reinforcement?
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; a stimulus when removed after a response, strengthens the response
What is a primary reinforcer?
An innately forcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
What is a conditioned reinforcer?
A stimulus hat gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer
What is continuous reinforcement?
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
What is partial (intermittent) reinforcement?
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition o a response but kuh greater resistance to extinction than does continuous
What is a fixed ratio schedule?
A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
What is a variable ratio schedule?
A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
What is a fixed interval schedule?
A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
What is punishment?
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows
What is a cognitive map?
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment
What is latent learning?
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
What is insight?
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
What is intrinsic motivation?
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
What is extrinsic motivation?
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Observational learning is..
Learning by observing others; also called social learning
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior