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Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (43):
1

What is "learning"?

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

2

What is "habituation"?

An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

3

What is "associative learning"?

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence

4

What is "conditioning"?

Process of learning associations

5

What is "classical conditioning"?

Learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events

6

What is "operant conditioning"?

behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

7

What is "observational learning"?

To learn from others' experiences

8

What is a "unconditioned response"? (UR)

In classical conditioning, the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth

9

What is "unconditioned stimulus"? (US)

A stimulus that unconditionally (naturally) triggers a response

10

What is a "conditioned response"? (CR)

The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

11

What is "conditioned stimulus"? (CS)

An originally irrelevant stimulus that after an association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

12

What is acquisition?

In classical conditioning: when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering a conditioned response
In operant conditioning: the strengthening or reinforced response

13

What is high-order conditioning? (Also known as second order conditioning)

When a conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second but often weaker conditioned stimulus (a light signaling the tone, which signals the food for the dog to salivate)

14

What is extinction?

The diminishing response when the conditioned stimulus no longer signals an impending unconditioned stimulus

15

What is spontaneous recovery?

The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

16

What is generalization?

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

17

What is discrimination?

Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

18

What is learned helplessness?

The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

19

What is respondent behavior?

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

20

What is operant behavior?

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

21

What is the law of effect?

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

22

What is an operant chamber?

A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals' rate of bar pressing or key pecking

23

What is shaping?

An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

24

What is a discriminative stimulus?

A stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)

25

What is a reinforcer?

Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

26

What is positive reinforcement?

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli; a stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response

27

What is negative reinforcement?

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; a stimulus when removed after a response, strengthens the response

28

What is a primary reinforcer?

An innately forcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

29

What is a conditioned reinforcer?

A stimulus hat gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer

30

What is continuous reinforcement?

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

31

What is partial (intermittent) reinforcement?

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition o a response but kuh greater resistance to extinction than does continuous

32

What is a fixed ratio schedule?

A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

33

What is a variable ratio schedule?

A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

34

What is a fixed interval schedule?

A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

35

What is punishment?

An event that decreases the behavior that it follows

36

What is a cognitive map?

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment

37

What is latent learning?

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

38

What is insight?

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

39

What is intrinsic motivation?

A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

40

What is extrinsic motivation?

A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

41

Observational learning is..

Learning by observing others; also called social learning

42

Modeling is..

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

43

Mirror neurons are..

Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; may enable imitation and empathy