Flashcards in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Deck (18):
What are the 3 steps to behaviour therapy?
1. remove specific symptoms
2. develop new adaptive behaviours
3. change environmental reinforcement contingencies
What are the stages of systematic desensitisation? (Wolpe, 1958)
1. relaxation training
2. construction of a fear hierarchy
3. learning process
How does aversion therapy work? (Kantorovich, 1930)
Take an unwanted behaviour and pair it with an unpleasant consequence
This means the unwanted behaviour becomes associated with the unpleasant consequence and thus becomes less frequent
How does flooding work? (Wolpe, 1990)
Person is exposed to the fear stimulus at full intensity without relaxation
How is anxiety eliminated using flooding?
Anxiety is eliminated through the process of extinction...
The conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without avoidance until the unconditioned response is no longer produced
How does modelling work? (Bandura, 1969; Bandura & Walters, 1963)
Learning behaviour through watching others, i.e. learning by imitation
Token economy - what does GROW stand for?
GOALS: what do you want to achieve?
REALITY: what is happening?
OPTIONS: what options do you think there are?
WAY FORWARD: can you summarise what you're going to do and by when?
Beck - illogical ways of thinking
MAGNIFICATION: magnifying difficulties & failures
MINIMISATION: minimising accomplishments & successes
SELECTIVE ABSTRACTION: arriving at a conclusion based on a selection of the evidence only
ARBITRARY INFERENCE: arriving at a conclusion despite the absence of supporting evidence
OVER-GENERALISATION: arriving at a conclusion based on a single & trivial event
Beck & Weishaar's 5 steps to cognitive therapy
1. learning to monitor negative, automatic thoughts
2. learning to recognise connection between cognition, affect & behaviour
3. examining the evidence for & against distorted automatic thoughts
4. substituting more reality-oriented interpretations for biased cognitions
5. learning to identify & alter beliefs that predispose a person to distort their experiences
Mowrer's (1947) two-factor model of...
fear and avoidance
Explaing Mowrer's two-factor model.
Fear is acquired through classical conditioning (first factor) and maintained through operant conditioning via negative reinforcement (second factos) as the person avoids his/her fear
Who developed the A-B-C model?
Describe the A-B-C model.
Our beliefs (B) about activating events (A) determine the consequences (C)
What is mustabatory ideology?
A strong 'must' quality that places heavy demands on people with beliefs such as 'I must do everything well otherwise I'm a failure'
What is Thorndike's (1898) law of effect?
When responses lead to positive consequences, those responses are strengthened are are more likely to occur in the future.
When responses lead to negative consequences the responses are not strengthened are are less likely to occur in the future.
What is collaborative empiricism (Hollon & Beck, 1994)?
Both therapist and client work together to identify the problem and to formulate hypotheses about how change might be brought about
What is meant by 'negative cognitive triad'?
experienced by people as negative automatic thoughts