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Flashcards in colon rectum anus Deck (38):
1

What week does embryonic GI tract begin developing

4th week of gestation

2

Most common bacteria in the colon

B. Fragilis

3

Diagnostic test used if perforation or leak is suspected in the colon

Gastrografin - water soluble contrast agent

4

How can ultrasound differentiate a benign polyp from invasive tumor?

Based on integrity of the submucosal layer

5

Most common traumatic cause of incontinence

Injury to the anal sphincter during vaginal delivery

6

Most common site of diverticulosis

sigmoid colon

7

Most common fistula of diverticulitis

colovesical fistula (5%)

8

hinchey staging for complicated diverticulitiys

I - pericolic abscess
II - pelvic abscess
III - purulent peritonitis
IV - fecal peritonitis

9

Diagnostic test for diverticulitis

CT scan

10

Treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis

1. out patient
2. broad spectrum antibiotic 7 to 10 days
3. low residue diet
4. failure to improve in 48 to 72 hours indicates abscess formation

11

Treatment of complicated diverticulitis

Elective sigmoid colectomy

12

What gene is mutated in familial aadenomatous polyposis

APC gene - chromosome 5

13

Multiple polyps in the intestine associated with melanin spots in the buccal mucosa and lips

Peutz Jegher Syndrome

14

Characteristic of Cronkite Canada Syndrome

1. polyposis
2. alopecia
3. cutaneous pigmentation
4. atrophy of fingernails and toenails

15

Characteristic of Cowden Syndrome

1. GI polyps
2. facial trichilemoas
3. breast cancer
4. thyroid disease

16

What type of adenoma has the highest cancer risk

Villous adenoma (50%)

17

Most common form of spread of colorectal carcinoma

lymphatics

18

Duke's staging of colorectal cancer

A - mucosa and submucosa
B - muscularis propria
C - lymph node
D - distant metastases

19

Treatment of colorectal cancer

1. LAR - tumor within 5 to 10 cm from anal verge
2. APR - tumor less than 5 cm from anal verge or recurrent cancer

20

Triad of carcinoid tumor

1. flushing - bradykinin
2. diarrhea - serotonin
3. vascular heart disease (mitral valve) - serotonin

21

Diagnostic test of caarcinoid tumor

24 hour 5 -HIAA test

22

This refers to squamous cell carcinoma in situ

Bowen's disease (anal intraepithelial neoplasia)

23

This disease is seen as bent inner tube or coffee bean appearance with loop convexity lying in the RUQ

sigmoid volvulus

24

This diease is seen as kidney shaped, air filled structuree in the LUQ

cecal volvulus

25

Treatment of sigmoid volvulus

1. fluid resuscitation
2. endoscopic detorsion

26

Treatment of cecal volvulus

1. surgical exploration

27

most common complication of hemorrhoidectomy

urinary retention

28

most common location of anal fissure

posterior midline

29

Medical management of anal fissure

1. lubricant
2. hot sitz bath
3. bulk laxatives

30

surgical management of anal fissure

Lateral subcutaneous partial internal sphincterectomy

31

most common type of anorectal abscess

perianal abscess

32

most common type of fistula in ano

intersphincteric

33

It is a class of fistula in ano where in it tracks through the distal internal sphincter and intersphincteric space to an external opening near the anal verge

intersphincteric

34

it is a class of fistula in ano where in it results fro an ischiorectal abscess and extends through bot the internal and external sphincter

transsphincteric

35

it is a class of fistula in ano where in it originates in the intersphincteric plane and tracks up around the entire external sphincter

suprasphincteric

36

it is a class of fistula in ano where in it originates in the rectal wall

extrasphincteric

37

Treatment of fistuala in ano

fistulotomy with drainage or seton placement

38

What is important in maintaining the integrity of colonic mucosa

short chain fatty acids