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Flashcards in fluid and electrolytes Deck (34):
1

What is the total body water percentage of male

60%

2

What is the total body water percentage of female

50%

3

What is the total body water percentage of newborn

80%

4

Breakdown of daily water loss

1. 800 - 1200 ml in urine
2. 250 ml in stool
3. 600 ml insensible loss - 75% skin and 25% lungs

5

What is the most common fluid disorder in surgical patients

Extra cellular volume deficit

6

composition of lactated ringers solution

Na - 130
Cl - 109
K - 4
Ca - 27
Lactate - 28
mOsm - 280

7

Composition of ECF

Na - 142
Cl - 103
K - 4
Ca - 28
mIOsm - 280

8

Composition of PNSS

Na - 154
Cl - 154
mOsm - 308

9

This is used as maintenance fluid therapy in postoperative period

D5 0.45% NaCl
-for patients unable to tolerate enteral nutrition and started 24 to 48 hours post operative

10

This is used in patietns with closed head injuries

D5 7% NaCl

11

Ways of preventing refeeding syndrome

1. underlying electrolyte or volume deficit should be corrected
2. thiamine should be administered before feeding
3. caloric repletion at 20/kcal/kg/day

12

consequence of rapid correction of hypernatremia

cerebral edema and herniation

13

consequence of rapid correction of hyponatremia

central pontine myelinosis

14

Drugs that are aldosterone antagonist

1. spironolactone
2. eplerenone

15

Drugs that are Na channel blockers

1. amiloride
2. triamterene

16

ECG changes in hyperkalemia

1. Peak T waves
2. prolong PR interval
3. flattened p waave
4. widened QRS complex
5. sine wave formation
6. ventricular fibrillation

17

What happens to deep tendon reflex in hypokalemia

decrease

18

What happens to deep tendon reflex in hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia

increase

19

ECG changes in hypercalcemia

1. shortened QT interval
2. prolonged PR interval
3. increase QRS voltage
4. T wave flattening and widening
5. AV block

20

What is the critical level of serum calcium

5 meq/l

21

ECG changes in hypocalcemia

1. prolonged QT interval
2. T wave inversion
3. heaert block
4. ventricular fibrillation

22

what is a concomitant electrolyte imbalance in metabolic alkalosis

hypokalemia

23

Potassium repletion is difficult in the presence of hypomagnesemia

true

24

hypocalceia will be refractory to treatment if coexisting hypomagneseia is not corrected first

true

25

Tumor lysis syndrome electrolyte imbalance

1. hyperkalemia
2. hyperphosphatemia
3. hyperurecemie
4. hypocalcemia

26

what are the electrolyte imbalance in rhabdomyolosis

hyperkalemia
hyperphosphatemia

27

causes of acute hypophosphatemia

1. respiratory alkalosis
2. insulin therapy
3. refeeding syndrome
. hungry bone syndrome

28

composition of saliva

volume - 1000
Na - 10
K - 26
Cl - 10
HC03 - 30

29

composition of stomach

volume - 1000 - 2000
Na - 60 - 90
K - 10
Cl - 130
HC03 - 0

30

composition of duodenum

volume - 1500
Na - 120 - 140
K - 5 - 10
Cl - 90 - 120
HC03 - 0

31

composition of ileum

volume - 3000
Na - 140
K - 5
Cl - 104
HC03 - 30

32

composition of colon

volume - 750
Na - 60
K - 30
Cl - 40
HC03 - 0

33

composition of pancreas

volume - 600 - 800
Na - 135 - 145
K - 5- 10
Cl - 70 - 90
HC03 - 115

34

composition of bile

volume - 300 - 800
Na - 135 - 145
K - 5 - 10
Cl - 90 - 110
HC03 - 30 - 40