Colorectal Cancer Flashcards Preview

Gastroenterology (Own) > Colorectal Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (27):
1

Is an adenoma benign or malignant?

Benign with the potential to become malignant

2

Is an adenocarcinoma benign or malignant?

Malignant

3

What are the 4 main types of polyps?

Inflammatory
Hamartomaous
Metaplastic
Neoplastic

4

What is the first gene to be mutated in the development of colorectal cancer?

APC gene

5

Name the 3 genes mutated in colorectal cancer

APC gene
Kras gene
p53 gene

6

If an adenoma is tubular is it likely to be benign or malignant?

benign

7

Describe the criteria for Duke's staging A

Not invaded through the muscle layer

8

Describe the criteria for Duke' staging B

Has invaded through the muscular layer

9

Describe the criteria for Duke' staging C

Regional lymph nodes have become affected

10

Describe the criteria for Duke' staging D

Distant metastases

11

Name three protective factors to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer

Vegetables
Fibre
Exercise

12

Name four causative factors of colorectal cancer

Red meat
Smoking
Alcohol
Obesity

13

What does the enzyme AMPK do?

Increases glucose uptake by muscle
Decreases cell turnover

14

If someone is autosomal dominant - FAP, where does the mutation occur?

APC gene

15

If someone is autosomal dominant - HNPCC, where does the mutation occur?

In DNA mismatch repair gene

16

If the cancer is in the caecum what are the likely symptoms?

Anaemia

17

If the cancer is in the descending colon what are the likely symptoms?

Pain
Change in bowel habit
Rectal bleeding (occasionally)

18

If the cancer is in the rectum what are the likely symptoms?

Rectal bleeding
Tenesmus

19

What investigations would be used if the history and examination was suggestive of colorectal cancer? (4)

Barium enema
CT colography
Sigmoidoscope
Colonoscopy

20

Why might a barium enema not be a good investigation?

Picture is not clear as bowel is overlapping and often indistinguishable

21

What does faecal occult blood testing do?

Looks for small amounts of blood in stool

22

To stage a primary rectal cancer which scan is used?

MRI

23

What are emergency cases of colorectal cancer?

Obstruction
Perforation
Bleeding

24

What is the curative option for treatment in colorectal cancer?

Surgery

25

Which surgeries can be offered to a person with colonic cancer?

right hemicolectomy
extended right hemicolectomy
transverse colectomy
left hemicolectomy
sigmoid colectomy
subtotal colectomy

26

which surgical procedures are offered to a patient with rectal cancer?

abdomino-perianal excision
Anterior resection

27

which agent is used in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer?

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)