Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (27):
Is an adenoma benign or malignant?
Benign with the potential to become malignant
Is an adenocarcinoma benign or malignant?
What are the 4 main types of polyps?
What is the first gene to be mutated in the development of colorectal cancer?
Name the 3 genes mutated in colorectal cancer
If an adenoma is tubular is it likely to be benign or malignant?
Describe the criteria for Duke's staging A
Not invaded through the muscle layer
Describe the criteria for Duke' staging B
Has invaded through the muscular layer
Describe the criteria for Duke' staging C
Regional lymph nodes have become affected
Describe the criteria for Duke' staging D
Name three protective factors to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer
Name four causative factors of colorectal cancer
What does the enzyme AMPK do?
Increases glucose uptake by muscle
Decreases cell turnover
If someone is autosomal dominant - FAP, where does the mutation occur?
If someone is autosomal dominant - HNPCC, where does the mutation occur?
In DNA mismatch repair gene
If the cancer is in the caecum what are the likely symptoms?
If the cancer is in the descending colon what are the likely symptoms?
Change in bowel habit
Rectal bleeding (occasionally)
If the cancer is in the rectum what are the likely symptoms?
What investigations would be used if the history and examination was suggestive of colorectal cancer? (4)
Why might a barium enema not be a good investigation?
Picture is not clear as bowel is overlapping and often indistinguishable
What does faecal occult blood testing do?
Looks for small amounts of blood in stool
To stage a primary rectal cancer which scan is used?
What are emergency cases of colorectal cancer?
What is the curative option for treatment in colorectal cancer?
Which surgeries can be offered to a person with colonic cancer?
extended right hemicolectomy
which surgical procedures are offered to a patient with rectal cancer?