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Flashcards in LFTs Deck (26):
1

Where is albumin synthesised?

The liver

2

If albumin is low, what may it indicate?

That synthetic function is impaired but protein loss is elsewhere

3

Where is AST found?

Mitochondrial enzyme which is found in the liver, heart, muscle, kidneys and brain

4

When is AST raised?

Hepatic necrosis, MI, muscle injury and congestive cardiac failure

5

What is ALT?

Cytosol enzyme produced by hepatocytes

6

Which is more specific to the liver - AST or ALT?

ALT - raised in liver disease

7

Where is Alkaline phosphatase produced?

In the biliary cells

8

When may ALP be raised?

In the presence of biliary injury e.g. obstruction, tumours

9

What does ALP suggest?

Obstructive jaundice formation

10

In which situation, other than the liver, may ALP be raised?

Produced in bone so in growing children or bone metastases

11

what does a raised GGT suggest?

Biliary injury related to alcohol abuse or related to fatty liver disease

12

What does raised bilirubin and raised ALP suggest?

Hepatocellular injury - liver metastasis and hepatitis

13

When does the prothrombin time become deranged?

Acute hepatic failure - fails to synthesis clotting factors

14

When is alpha feta protein values used?

To diagnose patients with focal lesions of the liver

15

In which disease is alpha feta proteins used as a screening test?

Cirrhotic patients at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas

16

What is ceruloplasmin?

A protein which binds to copper

17

When is ceruloplasmin low?

Typically in Wilson's disease - also raised urinary copper

18

Typical LFT in alcohol abuse?

AST double ALT value and raised GGT

19

What is raised in acute liver damage?

ALT, AST and bilirubin

20

What is raised in chronic liver disease?

Bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP

21

What is raised in cirrhosis?

AST is higher than ALT, bilirubin increases in late stages and PTT is prolonged

22

What is raised in bile duct obstruction?

Bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP is greatly increased

23

What is raised in metastatic liver disease?

ALP greatly increased

24

What is decreased in autoimmune conditions of the liver?

Albumin

25

What does albumin do?

Regulates osmotic gradient and transports nutrients and waste products

26

What does a significantly raised ALP and raised GGT suggest?

Duct blockage