Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer and Screening Deck (19):
What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?
Sporadic - 85%
Familial risk - 10%
Inheritable conditions - HNPCC
Underlying IBD - 1%
What are the risk factors for sporadic cases of colorectal cancer?
Environment - Diet, Obseity & Smoking
Where do a majority of CRCs arise from?
What is the origin of adenomas?
What are the two main histological types of adenomas?
*Intermediate one is tubulovillous*
What are the presentations of colorectal cancer? (6)
Altered bowel opening
Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Acute colonic obstruction if stenosing tumour
Systemic symptoms of malignancy
What are the investigation for CRC?
Colonoscopy + biopsy
What are the four classifications of Duke's Criteria?
A - Confined to mucosa
B - Extended through mucosa to the muscle layer
C - Lymph nodes
D - Metastatases
What are the treatment options for CRC?
Lymph node removal
Partial hepactectomy for metastases
What are the different types of screening modalities for the general population?
What high risk groups should be especially screened?
Heritable conditions - FAP/HNPCC
What is FAP and what type of condition is it?
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
How does FAP present and what happens in early adulthood?
Multiple (>100) adenomas throughout the colon
High risk of malignant change
What are the extracolonic manifestations of FAP?
Benign gastric fundic cystic hyperplastic
What is CHRPE?
Congenital Retinal Hypertrophy of the Pigment Epithelia
What benefits do NSAIDs have in chemoprevention?
Reduces polyp number
Prevents recurrence of higher-grade adenomas in the retained rectal segment
What is HNPCC?
Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer
What has happenned in HNPCC and what type of condition is it?
Mutation in DNA mismatch repair
Autosomal dominant condition