Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal Flashcards Preview

GI System > Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal Deck (33):
1

What are the four main functions of the Digestive System?

Digestion - Materials broken down
Secretion - Entities going into circulation
Absorption - Entities being carried across the GI Tract
Motility - Entities moving down the canal towards the anus

2

What goes into the oral cavity to aid digestion?

Saliva

3

What acts as a valve for the oesophagus from the mouth?

Upper Oesophageal Sphincter made of a thickened muscular ring?

4

What are the functions of the Stomach?

Protein digestion
Foodstuff reduced to liquid form
Storage
Sterilisation

5

Is secretion heavy in the stomach and why?

Yes - To help form a slurry

6

What is Dumping Syndrome?

When food bypasses the stomach and enters the small intestine undigested

7

What is the main role of the Pancreas?

To produce digestive enzymes for fats, carbohydrates and proteins

8

What does the Liver do?

Produces Bile salts for digestion
Absorption of fats in the Small Intestine

9

What does the Gallbladder do?

Stores and concentrates bile

10

What in the role of the Small Intestine?

Final stages of chemical digestion and nutrient absoprtion

11

What are the main functions of the Large Intestine?

Water absorption
Bacterial Fermentation
Faeces formation

12

What are the four layers of the Alimentary canal wall?

Mucosa - Inner layer (Epithelium, Lamina Propria & Muscularis Mucosae)
Submucosa
Muscularis Externa
Serous/Adventitia

13

What type of epithelium line the mouth, oesophagus and anal canal?

Stratified squamous

14

What type of epithelium line the stomach and intestine?

Simple columnar

15

What is the lamina propria made of?

loose connective tissue - Glands & Blood/Lymph vessels

16

What is the muscularis mucosae made of?

Thin smooth muscle layer

17

What is the submucosa made of and where are they found?

Thick, irregular connective tissue that supports the mucosa containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and neurones
Found in the oesophagus and duodenum

18

What are the two layers of the muscularis externa made of?

Inner layer is circular and constricts the lumen
Outer layer is longitudinal and shortens the tube

19

Can Peristalsis and Segmentation occur at the same time?

No

20

What has independent control of gut function and what it is made up of?

Enteric Nervous System (ENS) - Submucosal and Myenteric plexuses

21

What does the Serosa/Adventitia attach the oesophagus and rectum to?

Surrounding structures

22

What does the serosa surround in the peritoneum?

Stomach and the entirety of the intestine

23

What nerve carries parasympathetic signals and are these inhibitory/stimulatory?

Vague nerve
Stimulatory
*Increase secretion and motility*

24

What nerve carries sympathetic signals and are these inhibitory/stimulatory?

Splanchic nerve
Inhibitory
*Decreased secretion and motility*

25

What are the main arteries of the GI Tract and where do they branch off?

Coeliac trunk - T12
Superior mesenteric artery - L1
Inferior mesenteric artery - L3

26

What organs does the Coeliac trunk supply?

Stomach
Small intestine
Pancreas
Liver
*FOREGUT*

27

What organs does the Superior mesenteric artery supply?

Small intestine
Caecum
Ascending & Transverse colon
*MIDGUT*

28

What organs does the Inferior mesenteric artery supply?

Descending colon
Sigmoid Colon
Rectum
*HINDGUT*

29

What veins does the stomach drain into?

Gastric veins

30

What veins does the pancreas drain into?

Splenic veins

31

What organs drain into the Superior mesenteric vein?

Small intestine
Caecum
Ascending & Transverse colon
*MIDGUT*

32

What organs drain into the Inferior mesenteric vein?

Descending colon
Sigmoid Colon
Rectum
*HINDGUT*

33

What is the order of drainage of veins in the GI Tract?

All afore mentioned veins to hepatic portal vein to hepatic vein to IVC