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Flashcards in columna vertebral y medula espinal Deck (35):
1

cuantas vertebras cervicales tiene un humano en promedio

7
C1 = ATLAS
C2 = AXIS

2

cuantas vertebras toracicas tiene un humano en promedio

12
each articulating with a pair of ribs

3

cuantas vertebras lumbares tiene un humano en promedio

5
large vertebrae to support the body's weight

4

cuantas vertebras del sacro tiene un humano en promedio

5 fused vertebrae

5

cuantas vertebras del coccix tiene un humano en promedio

4

6

name the curvatures of the vertebral column

cervical curvature
thoracic curvature
lumbar curvature
sacral curvature

7

name the primary curvatures of the vertebral column

thoracic curvature
sacral curvature

- both present in the fetus

8

name the secondary curvatures of the vertebral column

cervical curvature: acquired when the infant can support the weight of its own head

lumbar curvature: acquired when the infant assumes an upright posture

9

name the key ligaments of the vertebral column

- anterior longitudinal ligament: connects adjacent bodies and the IVD along their anterior aspect
- posterior longitudinal ligament: connects adjacent bodies and IVD along their posterior aspect
- supraspinous ligament: between adjacent spinous processes
- interspinous ligament: between adjacent spinous processes
- ligament flava (ligamento amarillo): connect adjacent laminae; contain elastic fibers.

10

characteristics of C1 (atlas)

- doesn't have a body or spinous process
- ringlike bone; superior facet articulates with occipital bone

11

whats the strongest cervical vertebra

C2 (axis)

12

characteristics of thoracic vertebrae

- heart-shaped body, with facets for rib articulation
-small circular vertebral foramen (the spinal cord passes through the vertebral foramen)
- long transverse processes (which have costal facets for rib articulation; T1-T10 only)
- long spinous processes (slope posteriorly and overlap the next vertebra below)

13

what is the largest vertebrae

L5

14

characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae

- kidney-shaped body, massive for support
- facets face medial or lateral direction, which permits good flexion and extension
- spinous process is short

15

characteristics of the sacrum

- large, wedge-shaped, which transmits body weight to pelvis
- five fused vertebrae, with fusion complete by puberty

16

characteristics of the coccyx

- Co1 often not fused
- Co2 to Co4 fused
- no pedicles, laminae, spines
- remnant of our embryonic tail

17

cuales son las costillas verdaderas

ribs 1 - 7; they articulate with the sternum directly

18

cuales son las costillas falsas

ribs 8 - 10; they articulate with costal cartilages of the ribs above

19

cuales son las costillas flotantes

ribs 11 - 12; they articulate with vertebrae only

20

cuantas costillas tenemos

12

21

caracteristicas de una costilla tipica

contienen cabeza, cuello, tuberculo, cuerpo y angulo

son las costillas 3 al 9

22

cuales son las costillas atipicas y porque

1: es la mas ancha, corta y curvada, tiene 2 surcos para los vasos subclavios, tiene solo 1 cara articular para T1

2: tiene la tuberosidad del musculo serrato anterior

10 - 12: tiene solo 1 cara articular

11 y 12: no presentan cuellos ni tuberculos

23

partes del esternon

manubrio
cuerpo
apofisis xifoides

24

what is the spinal cord

it is a direct continuation of the medulla oblongata, extending below the foramen magnum at the base of the skull and passing through the vertebral (spinal) canal formed by the articulated vertebrae

25

name the features of the spinal cord

- 31 pairs of spinal nerves (8 cervical pairs, 12 thoracic pairs, 5 lumbar pairs, 5 sacral pairs and 1 coccygeal pair)
- each spinal nerve is formed by dorsal and ventral roots
- motor neurons reside in the spinal cord gray matter (anterior horn)
- sensory neurons reside in the spinal nerve dorsal root gangla
- ventral rami of spinal nerves often converge to form plexuses (a mixed network of nerve axons)

26

where does the spinal cord end

at a tapered region called the conus medullaris, which is situated at about the level of the L1-L2 vertebrae

27

where is the gray matter located in the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex

spinal cord: lie in the center of the cord, where they form a butterfly or H shaped region

cerebral cortex: surface of the brain

28

how is the grey matter divided in the spinal cord

posterior horn: receives sensory axons from the periphery

anterior horn: efferent axons exit the cord to enter a spinal nerve

29

characteristics of the white matter of the spinal cord

- it decreases as one continues inferiorly from rostral to caudal
- divided into dorsal, lateral and anterior funiculi (bundles) that contain multiple fiber tracts

30

characteristics of the dorsal (posterior) funiculus tract

ascending pathways that, generally speaking, convey proprioception (muscle and joint position), touch and tactile discrimination (size and shape discrimination) from the leg (fasciculus gracilis) and arm (fasciculus cuneatus)

31

characteristics of the lateral funiculus tract

ascending pathways that convey proprioception, pain, temperature, and touch sensations to higher centers, and convey descending pathways concerned with skilled movements and autonomic information to preganglionic neurons

32

characteristics of the anterior funiculus

some ascending pathways that convey pain, temperature, and touch, and descending pathways that convey information that facilitates or inhibits flexor and extensor muscles; reflex movements that control tone, posture, and head movements; and some skilled movements

33

what are lower motor neurons

they are the neurons of the anterior horn that innervate skeletal muscle.

lesions of these neurons or their axons in the peripheral nerve results in the loss of voluntary and reflex responses of the muscles and cause muscle atrophy. The denervated muscles exhibit fibrillations (fine twitching) and fasciculations (brief contractions of muscle motor units)

34

what are upper motor neurons

they are the neurons at higher levels in the CNS that send axons either to the brainstem or spinal cord.

in general, lesions of these neurons or their axons result in spastic paralysis, hyperactive muscle stretch reflexes, clonus (a series of rhythmic jerks), a "clasp-knife" response (muscle hypertonia) to passive movements, and lack of muscle atrophy (except by disuse)

35

what is ALS

it is a progressive and fatal disease that results in the degeneration of motor neurons in the cranial nerves and in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. Muscle weakness and atrophy occur in some muscles, whereas spasticity and hyperreflexia are present in other muscles.