Common Medical Prefixes Flashcards Preview

NAB EXAM > Common Medical Prefixes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Medical Prefixes Deck (101):
1

em-, en-

in, e.g., embolic (pushing or growing in)

2

angio-

relating to a vessel, e.g., angiofibrosis (hardening of a vessel wall)

3

oxy-

sharp, acute, e.g., oxyesthesia (a condition of increased acuity of sensation)

4

hepato-

liver, e.g., hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)

5

cyto-

relation to a cell, e.g., cytolysis (the dissolution of a cell)

6

vaso-

vessel, e.g., vasoconstriction (narrowing of the blood vessels) or vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels)

7

derm-

pertaining to the skin, e.g., dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)

8

opto-

relating to vision, e.g., optometer (an instrument for determining the refraction of the eye)

9

a-, an-

without, e.g., anorexia (loss of appetite) (Evans, et. al., 2000, p. 158).

10

uni-

one, e.g., unicellular (composed of one cell)

11

ortho-

straight, e.g., orthostatic (standing upright from a sitting or reclining position)

12

meta-

after, beyond, transformation, e.g., metastasis (the shifting of a disease)

13

hemato-, hema-

pertaining to the blood, e.g., hemorrhage (bleeding, a flow of blood) or hematuria (blood in the urine)

14

necro-

relating to death, e.g., necrocytosis (death of cells)

15

hydro-

pertaining to water, e.g., hydrocyst (a cyst or sore with clear, watery contents)

16

infra-

below, beneath, e.g., infracardiac (beneath the heart, below the level of the heart)

17

ecto-

out, away from, e.g., ectoderm (the outermost layer of the skin)

18

tachy-

rapid, e.g., tachycardia (rapid beating of the heart)

19

carcino-

pertaining to cancer, e.g., carcinogen (any cancer producing substance) or carcinoma (a malignant neoplasm or cancer)

20

encephalo-

condition in the brain or head, e.g., encephalomyolitis (an acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord) or encephalosclerosis (a hardening of the brain)

21

adeno-

gland, e.g., adenoma, a benign (non-cancerous) epithelial (surface-covering) tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures

22

dia

through, apart, e.g., diagastric (through the stomach)

23

bio-

relation to life, e.g., biopsy (the process of removing tissue from living residents for a diagnostic examination)

24

ante-

in front of, before, e.g., ante cibum (before a meal)

25

celio-

pertaining to the abdomen, e.g., celiectomy (excision of the stomach) or celiocentesis (puncture of the abdominal cavity)

26

entero-

relating to the intestines, e.g., enterocolitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of both small and large intestines)

27

syn-

loss, e.g., syncope (to faint, a temporary loss of consciousness due to generalized cerebral ischemia, i.e. too little blood getting to the brain) (Landefeld, et. al., 2004, p.138; Evans, et. al., 2000, 111) Syncope itself is not a diagnosis but rather a symptom of an underlying disorder.

28

myel-

pertaining to the spinal cord, e.g., myeloplegia (spinal paralysis)

29

pneumo-

lung, e.g., pneumonia (inflammation of the lung)

30

rachi-

spine, e.g., rachiocampsis (curvature of the spine)

31

labio-

relating to the lip, e.g., labiocervical (pertaining to the lip and to the neck)

32

hemi-

half, e.g., hemialgia (pain affecting one entire half of the body) or hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body)

33

pan-

all, e.g., pancarditis (diffuse inflammation of the heart)

34

thermo-

heat, e.g., thermophobia (morbid fear of heat)

35

ad-

toward, to at

36

glyco-

relationship to sweetness (sugar), e.g., glycogen, the chief carbohydrate storage material in animals formed by and largely stored in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the muscles

37

osteo-

pertaining to the bones, e.g., osteoporosis (reduction in the quantity of bone or atrophy of skeletal tissue)

38

gastro-

stomach, e.g., gastrostomy (the establishment of an artificial opening into the stomach, usually for feeding purposes)

39

cephalo-

head, e.g., cephalogram (an X-ray image of the structures of the head)

40

circum-

around, e.g., circumcorneal (around or about the cornea of the eye)

41

mast-

relating to the breast, e.g., mastectomy (amputation of the breast)

42

arthro-

pertaining to the joints, e.g., arthropathy (any disease affecting the joints)

43

cervico-

neck or cervix, e.g., cervicovesical (pertaining to the urinary bladder and the cervix)

44

ab-

from, off, away, e.g., abnormal (not normal)

45

kerato-

relating to the cornea, or horny tissue, e.g., keratoconjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva at the border of the cornea of the eye)

46

counter-

against, opposite, e.g., counteraction (action of a drug or agent opposed to that of some other drug or agent)

47

neuro-

relating to the nerves, e.g., a neurogenic bladder is one which is controlled by the nervous system rather than by voluntary control by the person or neruroleptic, an antipsychotic agent

48

cata-

downward, against, e.g., catabolism (the breaking down in the body of complex chemical compounds into simpler ones, often accompanied by the liberation of energy

49

cysto-

pertaining to the bladder, e.g., cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder) or cystocele (hernia of the bladder)

50

poly-

many, much, e.g., polyarthritis (inflammation of several joints)

51

com-, con-

with, together, e.g., complication (a disease or adverse condition associated with another disease or adverse condition)

52

endo-

within, inner, e.g., endocarditis (inflammation of the endocardium or lining membrane of the heart); (Evans, et. al., 2000, p. 61, 428) or endoscope (an instrument for the examination of the interior of a body canal or hollow area)

53

psycho-

pertaining to the mind, e.g., psychotherapy (counseling help)

54

per-

through, e.g., perfusion (the act of pouring over or through, especially the passage of a fluid through the vessels of a specific organ)

55

cranio-

pertaining to the head, e.g., cranioplasty (any plastic operation on the skull)

56

ileo-

relating to the ileum (remote end of the small intestine), e.g., ileocolitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of both ileum and colon)

57

ambi-

both. e. g. ambilateral (relating to both sides)

58

bact

relating to bacteria, e.g., bacteuria - the presence of bacteria in the urine.

59

omo-

pertaining to the shoulder, e.g., omodynia (pain in the shoulder joint)

60

hystero-

relating to the uterus, e.g., hysterogram (an X-ray of the uterus)

61

pyo-

signifying pus, e.g., pyoderma (any infection of or on the skin that contains pus, i.e., a collection of white blood cells and other materials generated by the immune response)

62

mega-

large, oversize, e.g., megacardia (enlargement of the heart)

63

macro-

large, long e.g., macrocyte (a giant red cell)

64

patho-

disease, e.g., pathogenesis (the origin or development of a disease)

65

auto-

self, same, e.g., autoanalysis (analysis by a person of his/her own disorder)

66

phlebo-

relating to a vein, e.g., phlebitis (inflammation of a vein)

67

hyper-

excessive, e.g., hyperesthesia (abnormal acuteness of sensitivity to touch, pain, or other stimuli)

68

pachy-

thick, e.g., pachylosis (a condition of roughness, dryness, and thickening of the skin)

69

procto-

relating to the anus, e.g., proctoscope, a short tubular instrument with illumination for inspecting the rectum. A sigmoidoscope, a foot-long tube, is used to examine the sigmoid (shaped like the letter M) colon, i.e. left colon from the descending colon to the rectum. A colonoscope, which is the longest, is used to examine the entire colon

70

eu-

good, e.g., euphoria (a feeling of well-being, commonly exaggerated and not necessarily well founded) or eupnea (easy, free respiration)

71

cardio-

pertaining to the heart, e.g., cardioplegia (paralysis of the heart), cardiomyopathy (a generalized term denoting heart disease)

72

nephro-

pertaining to the kidney, e.g., nephritis (inflammation of the kidney)

73

brady-

slow, e.g., bradycardia (a slow heart)

74

gyneco-, gyno-

pertaining to a female, e.g., gynecology (the science of diseases of women, especially those of the genital tract)

75

broncho-

relating to the trachea or windpipe, e.g., bronchoedema (swelling of the mucosa of the bronchial tube)

76

hypo-

deficiency, lack of, e.g., hypochondria (a false belief that one is suffering from some disease) hypotension

77

multi-

many, e.g., multicellular (composed of many cells)

78

inter-

between, e.g., intercostal (between the ribs)

79

fibro-

pertaining to fiber, e.g., fibromyalgia (a condition characterized by fatigue, stiffness and chronic pain the muscles, tendons and ligaments)

80

hypno (a)-

relating to sleep, e.g., hypnotherapy (the treatment of disease by inducing prolonged sleep)

81

peri-

around, e.g., peribronchitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the bronchial tubes)

82

bi-

two, e.g., bilateral (relating to both sides)

83

uro-

relating to the urine, e.g., urosepsis (septic poisoning from retained and absorbed urinary substances)

84

dextro-

toward or on the right side, e.g., dextrocardiogram (the part of the electrocardiogram that is derived from the right ventricle of the heart)

85

epi-

above, upon, over, e.g., epidermititis (inflammation of the epidermis or the superficial layer of the skin)

86

opthalmo-

relating to the eye, e.g., opthalmoplegia (paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye)

87

histo-

relationship to tissue, e.g., histolysis (disintegration of the tissue)

88

di-

double, twice, e.g., diarthric (relating to two joints)

89

rhino-

nose, e.g., rhinoplasty (a repair of the nose)

90

contra-

against, opposite, e.g., contraindicated (not recommended, advised against)

91

dys-

painful, difficult, e.g., dysphasia (difficulty in talking) or dyspnea (difficulty in breathing)

92

chole-

pertaining to bile, e.g., cholecystotomy (incision into the gall bladder)

93

micro-

small, e.g., microinfarct (a very small infarct, i.e. death of tissue due to lack of blood supply, due to obstruction of circulation in capillaries or small arteries)

94

myo-

relating to muscle, e.g., myotrophy (muscular atrophy) or myocardial infarction (death of some heart muscle due to lack of blood supply, a heart attack)

95

de-

down, away from, e.g., defibrillation (the arrest of fibrillation, i.e., irregular or rapid randomized contractions of the cardiac muscle restored to normal rhythm) (e.g., debridement, (Evans, et. al., 2000, p. 108) removal of foreign material and contaminated or devitalized tissue from adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until healthy tissue is exposed, e.g., to debride a pressure sore) (e.g., detrusor, a general term for a body part, e.g., a muscle, that pushes down)

96

ana-

up, toward, e.g., anabolism (building up metabolism)

97

intro-

in, into, e.g., introgastric (leading or passed into the stomach, e.g., a nasogastric tube for feeding)

98

chiro-

pertaining to the hand, e.g., chiroplasty (plastic surgery on the hand)

99

an-

without, e.g., anoxia - absence of oxygen supply to the tissues despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood, sometimes used to mean hypoxia or reduced oxygen supply, e.g., anoxic encephalopathy (any degenerative brain disease, meaning a degenerative brain disease characterized by insufficient supply of oxygen)

100

pseudo-

false, e.g., pseudo dementia ( a condition of indifference to one's surroundings without actual mental impairment)

101

sub-

under, e.g., subcutaneous (under the skin)