Common Aging Diseases and Functions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Aging Diseases and Functions Deck (133):
1

Right-sided failure of the heart

edema- a build-up of fluids outside of the blood vessels that forces fluid into the tissues, occurs mostly in the ankles gradual loss of energy; anorexia (loss of appetite for food); constipation; weight gain (because kidneys cause the body to keep too much sodium and water; grayish or blue color of the skin due to decreased blood flow

2

Osthritis

this is the most prevalent form, also called degenerative joint disease As the disease progresses, the cartilage and other components of the joint begin to wear away or degenerate.

3

the respiratory tract

thousands of cilia (small hair like elements) line the passageways and help propel outward any foreign materials that may be inhaled from the air. Coughing expels these particles from the body and back into the environment.

4

a fever or very weak condition resulting from the infection. Treatment generally includes some type of antibiotic therapy when bacteria are the cause of this infection.

the signs and symptoms of pneumonia are very similar to those already described and may include

5

Essential Hypertension

The cause of essential hypertension is unknown, and therefore the disease is without a complete cure, but it can be successfully controlled by medicatio

6

Chronic renal failure that has progressed to the stage where little or no urine is being produced is called

end stage renal disease (ESRD)

7

Herpes Zoster (shingles)

one of the diseases that primarily affects elderly individuals is herpes zoster, more commonly called shingles ; This infection is caused by the herpes varicella virus (not to be confused with herpes simplex) which travels along nerve pathways to infect skin cells

8

Three distinct phases of Alzheimer's disease have been identified as

Stage I - forgetfulness or early stage, Stage II - confusion or mild stage, and Stage III - dementia or terminal stage

9

Grade I

acute inflammatory response, often over a bony prominence; skin red, but unbroken

10

Stasis ulcers

the sores that result from extremely poor peripheral circulation or peripheral vascular disease

11

Two of the most common diseases that disrupt the metabolism of important nutrients are

anemia and diabetes

12

Cataract

a cloudiness that affects the transparency of the lens to the extent that light cannot get through to the retina of the eye

13

Blood circulation

the basic processes and structures that enable the body to transport oxygen to the cells and tissues

14

Osteoporosis

a condition of decreased skeletal mass without alteration of any chemical components of bone

15

Myocardial infarction (MI)

(literally meaning heart muscle death) results when a large enough area of the heart muscle does not receive oxygen for a period of time

16

Arteries

the vessels that carry blood rich in nutrients away from the heart to the remainder of the body cells

17

Calcium

used to build bones and teeth, giving them their hard structure; also helps to clot blood

18

Alzheimer's disease

the most common form of dementia seen in persons over 60 years old; its incidence increased dramatically after that age (Maddox & Sussman, 2001, p. 62; Singh, 2010, p. 586). The Alzheimer's patient displays an intellectual impairment that is irreversible (Pratt, 2010, p. 39).

19

Aphasia

the term used to describe an inability to interpret and formulate language

20

Nasogastric tubes

inserted through the nose and enter the stomach

21

Dementia

a broad, non-specific term denoting cognitive loss

22

Musculoskeletal system

the bones, muscles, tendons and joints used in movement

23

The chief function of the respiratory process

providing the body with oxygen while removing excess carbon dioxide

24

Transient ischemic attacks (also termed "mini-strokes")

caused by a temporarily diminished blood supply to the brain

25

The most common classification of lung disease

chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

26

The Inflammation Response

Inflammation occurs in the physical responses by the other body systems when fighting off infection of some external threat

27

Incontinence

the inability to control the timing of elimination

28

Kidney dialysis

(hemodialysis, i.e. filtering the blood) requires special equipment that performs much like the kidney in filtering unwanted waste materials and fluids from the blood

29

Ostomy care includes

special care for a skin opening to the intestine and/or urinary tract such as a colostomy (opening to the colon)

30

Excretory system

the way in which the body relieves itself of fluid and chemical waste products

31

Hemorrhoids

another painful disturbance that can affect the elimination of waste materials from the body. A hemorrhoid is a vein in either the rectum (internal) or around the anus (external) that becomes enlarged. The external type are usually more painful for the resident. Hemorrhoids may either be the causes or result of chronic constipation.

32

Arteriosclerosis

Usually, arteries are smooth inside and can stretch to permit the passage of more blood and oxygen when needed. With arteriosclerosis, the blood vessels are not as responsive as they previously were.

33

Constipation

an irregularity in or lack of elimination of waste materials from the body

34

Atherosclerosis

In this, the most common form of arteriosclerosis, there is a progressive buildup of fat deposits on the inner lining of blood vessel walls

35

Respiratory rate >30 breaths/minute; Pulse > 125 beats/minute; Altered mental status; History of dementia

Independent variables associated with mortality within 30 days in nursing home acquired pneumonia

36

Breathing

the process by which the body obtains oxygen from the environment and distributes it throughout the body

37

Esophagostic tubes

pass through the neck into the esophagus

38

The renal system consists of

the two kidneys, which filter wastes from the blood, and two ureters, which transmit the filtered materials (urine) from the kidneys to the bladder, where the urine is stored until discharged through the urethra

39

The goal of treatment is

to achieve the highest quality of life while maintaining physical function

40

Grade II

extension of the acute inflammatory response through the dermis to subcutaneous fat

41

External and internal defense mechanisms

the skin and an internal immune system, which play important roles in protecting the body from any harmful invasions

42

Signs and symptoms of decubitus ulcers include

tingling, pale skin color, or other signs that there is a loss of circulation to an area; reddened area of skin over a bony prominence; a sore that will not heal; edema (swelling) of the lower legs and shiny skin

43

When residents cannot eat

nasogastric, esophagostomy, or gastrostomy tube feeding may be prescribed by the physician

44

Nutritional needs

needs of the body for nutrients (Evans, et. al., 2000, p. 140 ff.)

45

treatments typically used include

prescribing weight loss and diet therapy, including restricted salt intake

46

Diabetes

occurs when the body is unable to metabolize glucose (sugar) because of a problem with a hormone, insulin, that is produced by a ductless gland, the pancreas

47

Alveoli

the many air-filled sacs that are the site of the actual oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange

48

Oxygenation

the transfer of oxygen from the blood cells at the capillary level into the necessary tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide

49

Hypothermia

(low body temperature) an issue of special concern to nursing home staff Usually, the body temperature is maintained between 97 and 99 degrees Fahrenheit.

50

large amounts of sugar continually circulating in the bloodstream, causing the condition known as

hyperglycemia (high blood sugar)

51

Hearing impairments can also be due to

a buildup of wax in the ear or to what is known as a conductive or sensorineural hearing loss

52

Parkinson's disease

a group of symptoms that can progressively lead to complete disability in those severely affected

53

Peptic Ulcers

may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Two of the most common types are gastric ulcers that affect the mid-stomach and duodenal ulcers that involve the lower stomach

54

Anemia

a condition in which hemoglobin is deficient, resulting in the body not getting enough oxygen

55

Potassium

contained in fluids and tissues; important in muscle contraction, maintains the body fluid balance, and also acts as a buffering mechanism in the bloodstream

56

Ulcer

a wearing away of the inner lining of the stomach wall and is due to a chronic buildup of excessive levels of acid

57

Grade III

extension though fat to deep fascia, base of ulcer infected

58

Iron

important in building healthy red blood cells that are able to carry oxygen

59

Calories

the units of measurement for determining the amount of energy that is contained in foods or used by the body

60

Cerebrospinal fluid

protects the brain and spinal cord

61

Emphysema

results in a loss of elasticity in all of the lung tissue

62

Decubitus Ulcers

Pressure sores is the federal government's preferred term for these infections known also as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, and stasis ulcers (ulcers resulting from tissue death due to reduced blood flow, all terms for the same process - tissue breakdown

63

Oxygen

a colorless, odorless, gaseous chemical element that is found in the air

64

Secondary hypertension

in the elderly results from other underlying diseases, including anemia, fever, endocrine disease or hormonal disruption, arteriosclerosis and/or kidney disease

65

Cancer

a disorder of the immune system because cancer cells act as antigens and are known to attack many organs or cells throughout the body

66

Treatments of MI

Nitroglycerin; Propranolol hydrochloride (Inderol ® is referred to as a beta blocker because of its action in blocking body chemicals that act to increase the heart rate); There are also a variety of antiarrhythmic medications available

67

High blood pressure

is usually considered to be present when the blood pressure measurement is consistently greater than 140/90

68

High-fiber diet

to provide bulk; similar to regular diet, but with foods that are difficult to digest; e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, and bran

69

Lymphatic fluid

carries white blood cells and fluids from the tissues

70

the psychological status

Emotional and mental well-being

71

Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction can range from

none at all to various types of angina or, most serious, to a complete cessation of heart activity that occurs after MI or complete heart block

72

Pressure sores are typically classed as

Grade I, I, III, and IV

73

Soft diet

for residents who need a diet that is low in fiber, soft in texture and mild in flavor.

74

High blood pressure

is usually considered to be present when the blood pressure measurement is consistently greater than 140/90

75

High-fiber diet

to provide bulk; similar to regular diet, but with foods that are difficult to digest; e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, and bran

76

Lymphatic fluid

carries white blood cells and fluids from the tissues

77

the psychological status

Emotional and mental well-being

78

Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction can range from

none at all to various types of angina or, most serious, to a complete cessation of heart activity that occurs after MI or complete heart block

79

Pressure sores are typically classed as

Grade I, I, III, and IV

80

Soft diet

for residents who need a diet that is low in fiber, soft in texture and mild in flavor.

81

some signs of hypertension

prolonged, elevated blood pressure greater than 140/90, or the individual's norm, and prolonged presence of risk factors such as overweight, smoking, high salt intake

82

Mechanical soft diet

same as soft diet, except texture is either chopped, pureed or ground to make foods easier to ingest. (Note

83

Pneumonia

an infection in the lungs caused by either a virus or bacteria

84

High-calorie-high-protein diet

may include milk shakes, meats, and similar foods, to provide additional sources of protein

85

Rheumatoid Arthritis

a much more serious form of arthritis. It can affect any age group. This is considered an autoimmune (Kerr, 2006; Landefeld, et. al., 2004, p.264) disease because it is thought the body begins to attack its own cells in the joint, causing an inflammatory reaction.

86

Food provides the body with

the nutrients necessary to cell functioning

87

Strict full-liquid diet

consists of foods and liquids that are liquid at body temperature, but can include cold ice cream and hot soup.

88

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

the most common GI disorder affecting the nursing home population (Landefeld, et. al., 2004, p. 220). This problem occurs when the contents of the stomach move back up into the esophagus due to failure of the valves between the esophagus and stomach.

89

Increased risk for urinary tract infections includes

prostatic hypertrophy and loss of estrogen effect, neurogenic bladder from stroke or diabetes, incontinence, and use of indwelling and condom cathethers

90

Dysarthria

(literally, imperfect articulation of speech) a speech rather than a language abnormality that may accompany paralysis, weakness, or lack of coordination

91

Congestive Heart Failure

This is not a disease, but is actually a complex set of many symptoms associated with an impaired performance of the heart

92

CHF Signs and symptoms include

symmetric inflammation of joints on both sides of the body;frequent flare-ups and remissions of pain; stiffness and joint swelling, usually in the hands; pain, often occurring in the morning hours and decreasing with exercise

93

There are two types of this high blood pressure disease

(a) essential hypertension and (b) secondary hypertension

94

Aortic Stenosis

The term describes a narrowing of the aorta, which is the major artery leading from the heart and channeling the oxygenated blood supply to the rest of the body

95

Digestion

the process by which the body breaks down food into a form in which the nutrients may be used by the individual cells

96

Coronary Artery Disease

Also known as chronic ischemic heart disease, here the heart muscle itself suffers from a lack of oxygen due to blockages in the coronary arteries that usually supply it

97

Veins

The blood cells carry carbon dioxide through the vein network and back to the heart. Veins return blood that is carrying carbon dioxide back to the heart through the superior (from upper body) and inferior (lower body) vena cava

98

Infection from urinary catheters

usually impossible to prevent

99

renal calculi

(kidney stones) are formed in the kidney as a result of an imbalance in body chemistry. These stones are hard crystalline stone-like substances that become a problem when they block urine flow out of the kidney or block any other area of the renal system

100

Metabolism

the transformation process in which nutrients undergo various chemical reactions throughout the body, producing energy while also helping cells perform necessary functions

101

Signs of cerebrovascular disease can be

slurred speech, blurred vision, dizziness, numb hands and fingers, and mental confusion

102

Digestion

the process by which the body breaks down food into needed nutrients

103

Renal failure

the inability of the kidney to filter out body waste products This can be either an acute (short-term) or more likely, a chronic (long-term) process.

104

urinary incontinence

the inability to control the timing of urination. Bladder or urinary incontinence more often than one time a week is a common problem in nursing facility residents

105

Infection

when bacteria or viruses are successful in penetrating the defense mechanisms in large numbers or are allowed to enter the areas of the body where they are not usually found

106

Dyspepsia

a chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen which is thought to arise in the upper GI tract; Symptoms including nausea, bloating, early satiety or reflux symptoms; Treatment is difficult

107

Nervous system

responsible for controlling all of the body functions and assuring that they are functioning properly; these are the regulatory activities

108

Glaucoma

a chronic condition that is actually a complex of many different symptoms

109

There are four different types of glaucoma

(a) chronic, (b) acute, (c) secondary, and (d) congenital

110

Reproductive system impacts

sexuality in the elderly

111

Cerebrovascular Disease

This disease manifests itself through restricted blood flow to the brain, caused by occlusions within the carotid arteries that supply blood to the brain

112

Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease can include

chest pain - commonly called angina - which results from a lack of oxygen to certain areas of the heart muscle; pain may be located anywhere in the chest, especially in the left arm or neck

113

The two most common forms of treatment for End Stage Renal Disease

kidney transplantation and dialysis

114

Frontotemporal dementia

a heterogeneous syndrome that includes progressive aphasia and corticobasal degeneration syndrome

115

Chronic renal failure

may be caused by cardiovascular changes leading to a decreasing amount of blood being filtered through the kidneys

116

Plasma

Blood plasma is the straw-colored/pale-yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension.

117

Sodium

acts as a buffering mechanism, helps dissolve substances in the bloodstream, monitors the amount of fluid in the body

118

The two most common causes of organic brain syndrome are

(a) Alzheimer’s disease, and (b) cerebrovascular insufficiency or reduced blood flow to the brain

119

Grade IV

deep ulceration reaching the bone

120

The immune system

often referred to as the second line of defense; it protects the internal structures of the body

121

intermittent claudication, which is a complex of symptoms (Evans, et. al., 2000, p. 345) including the following

pain on movement of an extremity; pain that is chronic in a localized area; cold, numb feet

122

Presbycusis

the term used to describe any hearing impairment in old age

123

Organic brain syndrome

brain failure, and senility are all different words describing the same disorder.

124

Minerals needed by the body

calcium, sodium, iron, potassium

125

Peripheral Vascular Disease

This actually describes a group of diseases that affect the veins, arteries and other blood vessels of the extremities

126

Gastrostomy tubes

surgically inserted directly into the stomach

127

Nosocomial Infections

Infections that are associated with institutionalization or acquired while in a health care facility

128

residents who may be predisposed to cardiovascular disease are

those with high blood pressure, previous history of heart disease, and overweight

129

a stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

this occurs when the lack of oxygen for a much larger area of the brain causes permanent damage

130

chronic bronchitis

caused by a continuing irritation of the bronchi (the two airways into the lungs

131

Left-sided failure of the heart

frequent coughing or wheezing; shortness of breath (dyspnea) a result of the blood backing up into the lungs thus decreasing the amount of space in the lungs available to hold air. This is one of the definitive signs of CHF and usually occurs after exercise; confusion and loss of memory are severe symptoms that suggest the disease has progressed far enough to damage the brain tissue

132

Peritoneal dialysis

may be performed for the bedridden patient; it involves filtering out excess fluids from the peritoneum, which lines the abdominal organs (i.e., the serious membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities, containing the viscera). This procedure is similar to kidney dialysis. The waste products are filtered out through dialyzing the peritoneal cavity instead of the kidneys themselves.

133

Contractures

a deformity that result when the muscle has shortened and pulls the adjacent joint into a flexed position After a period of time the joint becomes fixed in this position and results in a permanent deformity in which the joint cannot be straightened.