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Flashcards in Common Respiratory Diseases And Interventions Deck (32):
1

What are the causes of type 1 respiratory failure?

Pneumonia
Asthma
Some lung Ca

2

What are the characteristics of type 2 respiratory failure?

Hypercapnia
PaCO2 >6 - CO2 problem
PaP2 normal or low
Need slower, deeper breathing

3

What is the cause of type 2 respiratory failure?

COPD

4

What are the normal respiratory changes due to age!

Harder to cope with additional strain
Reserves are less
Chest wall less elastic and less muscle strength
O2 less

5

What are the common interventions for respiratory diseases?

Reassurance and explanation as anxiety can make it worse

6

What is a chest infection?

Inflammation in the upper or lower airways
Need to know if it is hospital or community aquired

7

What causes a chest infection?

Upper airway = caused by virus
Lower airway = caused by bacterium

8

What is pneumonia?

Lungs filled with stuff

9

What is asthma?

Narrowing or airway leading to broncho spasm
Problem air trapping so pt can't exhale
Triggered by allergies

10

What is COPD?

Different elements with the symptoms dependent on elements
Causes increased work of breathing
Acute exacerbation can lead to the pt getting pneumonia quickly and easily
Raised CO2 causes the brain not to respond, causing it to rely on low level O2 to make the pt breath

11

What is alelectasis?

Common for post op pt and elderly pt
Collapsed alveoli at the base of the lung that need to be reopened
Can lead to T1RF

12

How do you treat a pt with alelectasis?

Position and physio
Huff and cough are ways to reopen alveoli
Incentive spirometry = positive reinforcement to open alveoli

13

What is pneumothorax?

Air in the pleural space leading to a collapsed lung

14

What are the causes of pneumothorax?

Thoraxic trauma = puncturing of the pleural cavity
Tension pneumothorax = popped lung leading to a collapsed lung
Can happen spontaneously

15

What is the treatment for pneumothorax?

Chest drain

16

How do you manage a pt with a chest drain?

Keep communication between pleural cavity and bottle, wants a "swinging" motion, needs to drain, monitor bubbling, never clamp tubing unless in emergency, keep below chest level, pain management

17

What is the oxygenation aim for a pt with T1RF?

94-98%

18

What is the oxygenation aim for T2RF?

88-92%

19

When would you use a nasal cannula?

Long term oxygen therapy
Delivers low amount of O2 - don't know % being delivered

20

What are the positives of a nasal cannula?

Pt can mobilise, eat and drink, comfortable

21

What is the function of high flow nasal O2?

Humidifies and moistens gas exchange

22

When would you use a non-rebreathe mask?

All critically ill pts
Can't know the % of O2 given to the pt
Short term

23

What are the positives of using a non-rebreather mask?

Prevents re-breathing CO2

24

What are the negatives of using a simple face mask?

Can't know the % of O2 delivered
Won't deliver more than 60% O2

25

What is a Venturi?

Controls the percentage of O2 delivered to a pt
Need to know the % prescribed then use the matching adapter

26

How would you deliver a nebuliser to a chronic respiratory pt?

Air

27

How would you give a nebuliser to an acutely unwell pt?

O2

28

Why would a pt be put on non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?

To support the rate and depth of breathing

29

What are the different types of non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?

CPAP - high flow O2 to help open the alveoli
BiPAP/NIPPV - non-invasive, breaths for pt, delivers breath

30

What are the different types of invasive ventilation?

Endotracheal
Tracheostomy

31

What are complications of ventilating a pt?

Face mask - trapping leading to aspiration, pt self removing
Sedation for invasive ventilation - increased risk of pneumonia
Inflammatory problems

32

What are the characteristics of type 1 respiratory failure?

Hypoxaemia
PaO2