Flashcards in Common Respiratory Diseases And Interventions Deck (32):
What are the causes of type 1 respiratory failure?
Some lung Ca
What are the characteristics of type 2 respiratory failure?
PaCO2 >6 - CO2 problem
PaP2 normal or low
Need slower, deeper breathing
What is the cause of type 2 respiratory failure?
What are the normal respiratory changes due to age!
Harder to cope with additional strain
Reserves are less
Chest wall less elastic and less muscle strength
What are the common interventions for respiratory diseases?
Reassurance and explanation as anxiety can make it worse
What is a chest infection?
Inflammation in the upper or lower airways
Need to know if it is hospital or community aquired
What causes a chest infection?
Upper airway = caused by virus
Lower airway = caused by bacterium
What is pneumonia?
Lungs filled with stuff
What is asthma?
Narrowing or airway leading to broncho spasm
Problem air trapping so pt can't exhale
Triggered by allergies
What is COPD?
Different elements with the symptoms dependent on elements
Causes increased work of breathing
Acute exacerbation can lead to the pt getting pneumonia quickly and easily
Raised CO2 causes the brain not to respond, causing it to rely on low level O2 to make the pt breath
What is alelectasis?
Common for post op pt and elderly pt
Collapsed alveoli at the base of the lung that need to be reopened
Can lead to T1RF
How do you treat a pt with alelectasis?
Position and physio
Huff and cough are ways to reopen alveoli
Incentive spirometry = positive reinforcement to open alveoli
What is pneumothorax?
Air in the pleural space leading to a collapsed lung
What are the causes of pneumothorax?
Thoraxic trauma = puncturing of the pleural cavity
Tension pneumothorax = popped lung leading to a collapsed lung
Can happen spontaneously
What is the treatment for pneumothorax?
How do you manage a pt with a chest drain?
Keep communication between pleural cavity and bottle, wants a "swinging" motion, needs to drain, monitor bubbling, never clamp tubing unless in emergency, keep below chest level, pain management
What is the oxygenation aim for a pt with T1RF?
What is the oxygenation aim for T2RF?
When would you use a nasal cannula?
Long term oxygen therapy
Delivers low amount of O2 - don't know % being delivered
What are the positives of a nasal cannula?
Pt can mobilise, eat and drink, comfortable
What is the function of high flow nasal O2?
Humidifies and moistens gas exchange
When would you use a non-rebreathe mask?
All critically ill pts
Can't know the % of O2 given to the pt
What are the positives of using a non-rebreather mask?
Prevents re-breathing CO2
What are the negatives of using a simple face mask?
Can't know the % of O2 delivered
Won't deliver more than 60% O2
What is a Venturi?
Controls the percentage of O2 delivered to a pt
Need to know the % prescribed then use the matching adapter
How would you deliver a nebuliser to a chronic respiratory pt?
How would you give a nebuliser to an acutely unwell pt?
Why would a pt be put on non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?
To support the rate and depth of breathing
What are the different types of non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?
CPAP - high flow O2 to help open the alveoli
BiPAP/NIPPV - non-invasive, breaths for pt, delivers breath
What are the different types of invasive ventilation?
What are complications of ventilating a pt?
Face mask - trapping leading to aspiration, pt self removing
Sedation for invasive ventilation - increased risk of pneumonia