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1

hiatus

= sequences of 2 vowels

'feo' 'alegria'

2

examples words where there is optional pronunciation varying between hiatus or dipthong

'avion', 'diablo'

3

allophone

actual realization of a phoneme in a given contexts; it can change according to different varieties of a language (dialects), register (sociolects,
formal vs. informal pronunciation), or individual mannierisms (idiolects).

4

2 things allophone 'choice' can depend on

different varieties of a language (dialects), register (sociolects,
formal vs. informal pronunciation), or individual mannierisms (idiolects).

5

example of allophone variation according to dialect

Madrid [maðríð], [maðrí], [maðriθ], [maðrít]

6

register

sociolects,
formal vs. informal pronunciation

7

dialect

different varieties of a language

8

individual mannerisms

idiolects

9

word for when the specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the
phonetic context

positional variants

10

2 options for causes of changes in a language

1. Internal, structural reasons—that is, motivated for phonetic, grammatical,
morphological and lexical causes or a combination of several of these.
2. External, ie historical reasons: by influence of another language.

11

2 options for manner of changes in a language

1.A regular sound change takes place systematically, and in every instance of
an environment.
2.Irregular sound changes are less common and quirky in nature. They're actually known as sporadic sound changes because the sound change does not
occur routinely in a given environment; vg. the context favours some changes,but they may not occur.

12

grapheme

In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language. An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language

(A grapheme is a letter or a number of letters that represent a sound (phoneme) in a word)

13

analytic language

language that uses little morphology