Connective tissue – Bone and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Histology > Connective tissue – Bone and Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective tissue – Bone and Cartilage Deck (53):
1

Origin of cartilage

Mesenchyme during the 5th week of development

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General features of cartilage

Avascular, poor ability for regeneration

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Growth types of cartilage

Appositional (from the surface) and interstitial (from the inside)

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Perichondrium

covers cartilage, made of dense irregular tissue

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Cell types in cartilage

Chrondroblasts and chondrocytes

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Chondroblasts

Cells close to the surface, appositional growth, secrete the matrix

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Chondrocytes

Embedded chondroblasts that occupy the lacunae, produce/maintain the ECM, interstitial growth

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Isogenous groups

Cell clusters of divided chrondrocytes

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Main type of collagen found in cartilage

Type II collagen

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What attaches chondrocytes to the cell matrix?

multi adhesive glycoproteins

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Territorial matrix

area that surrounds the lacunae that is richer in GAGs

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Interterritorial matrix

matrix in-between the lacunae, less intensely staining

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Types of cartilage

Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

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Hyaline cartilage

well developed perichondrium, dense irregular tissue, ECM has no visible fibers, chondrocytes are often in isogenous groups

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Elastic cartilage

Well developed perichondrium, ECM has *elastic fibers*, chondrocytes are in large/distended lacunae

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Fibrocartilage

Hybrid b/t hyaline and dense irregular connective tissue, does NOT have a perichondrium, has BOTH type I&II collagen

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Chondrosarcoma

Malignant proliferation of cartilage, wide age range with a slight male predominance

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Compact bone

Outer ridge shell of bone

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Spongy bone

spicules/trabeculae on the inner side of the bone

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Marrow cavity

Reticular, hemopoietic connective tissue or adipose tissue

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Periosteum

Dense irregular tissue that covers the external layer of bone, will have 2 layers of bone is actively growing (external-fibrous and internal-osteogenic)

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Osteoprogenitor cells

cells that form from the mesenchyme that will differentiate into osteoblasts

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Organic bone matrix

Type I collagen, little ground substances, has unique multiadhesive glycoproteins to bind matrix material

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Inorganic bone matrix

Most calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, Mg, Na, K

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Osteoblasts

principle bone-forming cells, only found at the boundary between bone and the adjacent tissue

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Osteocytes

Osteoblast that are trapped in the matrix, housed in lacunae, form canaliculi to connect the lacunae

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Osteoclasts

Large-multinucleated cells; reabsorb the bone

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Clear zone

Actin-rich area that osteoclasts attach to

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Ruffled border

part of the osteoclast in direct contact with the bone

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Osteosarcoma

Malignant proliferation of osteoblasts, 20% of primary bone cancers, high metastatic

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Osteoid osteoma

Small, benign tumor usually in the appendicular skeleton or spine that causes acute night pains

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Paget's disease

Enlarged, deformed bones that are prone to fracture

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Primary (woven) bone

Immature type of bone laid down for bone repair

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Secondary (lamellar) bone

main structural unit is the osteon

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Haversian canal

Longitudinal canal with the neurovascular bundle

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Lamellae

Surrounds the canals concentrically

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Canaliculi

Connect the lacunae

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Lacunae

Houses the osteocytes between the lamellae

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Volkmann's canal

Transverse canals with neurovascular bundles

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Interstitial lamellae

Remnants of the old Haversian system

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Types of ossification

Intramembranous and Endochondrial

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Intramembranous ossification

Bone formed directly from connective tissue

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Primary ossification center

Region of initial intramembranous ossification

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Endochondrial ossification definition

Replacement of cartilaginous tissue with bony tissue

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Endochondrial ossification steps

1) hyaline cartilage model forms 2)cartilage grows 3)cuff of bone formed around diaphysis 4)midregion of cartilage calcifies (lack of nutrients) 5)chondrocytes die 6) blood vessels/osteoprogenitors degenerate cartilage 7) osteoblasts secrete bone matrix 8)matrix replaces cartilage

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Primary ossification center for long bones

Diaphysis

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Secondary ossification center for long bones

Epiphyses

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Epiphyseal plate zones

Reserve cartilage, proliferation, hypertrophy, calcification, ossification

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Epiphyseal plate zones: reserve cartilage

hyaline cartilage with chondrocytes

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Epiphyseal plate zones: Proliferation

rapid tissue growth, chondrocytes divide to form stacked cells parallel to the long axis of the bone

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Epiphyseal plate zones: Hypertrophy

Chondrocytes swell in size

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Epiphyseal plate zones: Calcification

Chondrocytes lost via apoptosis, matrix is calcified

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Epiphyseal plate zones: ossification

Osteoblasts synthesize bone tissue over the calcified cartilage