Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Histology > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (58):
1

Epidermis

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that grows continuously grows. Derived from ectoderm

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Dermis

Connective tissue that provides support for the skin. Contains epidermal appendages, blood vessels, and nerves. Derived from mesoderm

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Hypodermis

Variable amount of adipose tissue. Main function is insulation.

4

Principle cells of epidermis

Keratinocytes

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Stratum basale

Deepest layer of epidermis. Single layer of cells on the basement membrane. Contains mitotically active cells.

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Hemidesmosomes

Link keratinocytes of stratum basale to basal lamina

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Blistering diseases

Autoimmune reactions to hemidesmosomes

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Stratum spinosum

Several cells thick. Connected by desmosomes. Cells are generally spherical in shape.

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Stratum Granulosum

Contains keratohyalin granules that stains intensely.

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Stratum lucidum

Contains most differentiated cells in the epidermis. Lost nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles.

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Main functions of keratinocytes

Produce keratin and for water barrier.

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2 unique structures found in keratinocytes

Keratohyalin granules and lamellar bodies

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Main proteins in keratohyalin granules

Filaggrin and trichohyalin. Promote aggregation of keratin filaments into fibrils

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Keratinization

Aggregation of keratin filaments into fibrils.

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Lamellar bodies

Membrane-bound vesicles that contain a mixture of lipids (make the water barrier)

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Where are squamous cell carcinomas derived from?

Stratum spinosum

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Which layer is basal cell carcinoma derived from?

Stratum basale

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Melanocytes-function

Production and distribution of melanin

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Melanocytes-cell structuree

Rounded cell body, numerous long processes. Not bound by desmosomes. Contain melanosomes.

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Melanosomes

Granules of melanin

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Malignant melanoma

Malignant tumor of melanocytes

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Langerhans' cells

Monocyte-derived immune system cells in the epidermis. Antigen-presenting cells that illicit an immune response when pathogens enter the skin. "Gather" antigens then present them to lymph nodes, and thus lymphocytes.

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Dendritic cell found in the epidermis not bound by desmosomes

Langerhans' cells

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Merkel's cells

Mechanoreception. Make contact with sensory nerve fibers. Most abundant in the fingertips. Located in stratum basale (bound via desmosomes). Have dense-core granules in the cytoplasm.

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Junction between dermis and epidermis

Rete Ridges (epideermis)
Dermal papillae (dermis)

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Layers of the dermis

Papillary layer
Reticular layer

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Papillary layer of the dermis

Loose connective tissue. More superficial. Includes dermal papillae

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Reticular layer of dermis

Deep to papillary. More thick and less cellular. Dense irregular connective tissue.

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Capillary Loops

In the dermal papillae. Give skin the pink color.

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Superficial Vascular plexus

Found at the junction between the papillary and reticular layers

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Deep vascular plexus

Located at the cutaneous/subcutaneous junction

32

Where are lymphatic capillaries usually found?

Dermal papillae

33

Pilosebaceous apparatus

Hair follicles, hair and sebaceous glands

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Root of a hair

Part of the hair located in the follicle

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Shaft of hair

Any part that projects above the surface of the epidermis

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Innermost layer of hair

Medulla

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Layer of hair that contains live cells accumulating keratin

Cortex

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Outer most layer of hair consisting of dead squamous cells

Cuticle

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What do sebaceous glands secrete? (General term)

Sebum

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Appearance of mature cells in sebaceous glands

Abundant SER, lipid droplets. Undergo apoptosis once released

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Arrector pili muscle

Smooth muscle at connects the deeper part of the follicle to the superficial dermis. Causes erection of hair. Innervated via sympathetic nervous system.

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Appearance of eccrine sweat glands

Simple coiled tubular glands. Not associated with hair follicle. Duct is lined with stratified cuboidal epithelium.

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What produces thee watery component of sweat?

Clear cells of eccrine sweat glands

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Appearance of dark eccrine sweat gland cells

Abundant RER and glycoprotein granules

45

What secretes the proteinaceous component of sweat?

Dark cells of eccrine sweat glands

46

What produces contractions that helps discharge sweat into ducts?

Myoepithelial cells

47

Apocrine sweat glands

Large-lumen tubular glands associated with hair follicles

48

Which gland secretes pheromones?

Apocrine sweat glands

49

Mammary glands

Modified apocrine sweat glands

50

What initiates secretion in mammary glands?

Prolactin

51

What stimulates ejection of milk from the breast?

Oxytocin

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What cells released oxytocin in mammary glands?

Myoepithelial cells between secretory cells and basal lamina.

53

Branched tubuloalveolar glands

Make up each lobule of mammary glands (along with dense irregular connective tissue).

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Lactiferous sinuses

Ducts of the tubuloavleolar glands that are lined with stratified cuboidal epithelium

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What do inactive tubuloalveolar glands lack?

Secretory end-pieces

56

What types of secretion are involved with the production of milk?

Merocrine and apocrine

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What part of the milk is synthesized via merocrine secretion?

The proteinaceous part

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What part of milk if formed via apocrine secretion?

Fatty component of milk