Flashcards in Constitution Deck (51)
How many colonies were there initially?
When was the war of independence?
When were the Articles of Confederation signed?
What is a Confederacy?
Loose associated of states where all political power rests with the states
What were the 3 compromises of the Constitution?
Choose the President
Representation of the States
Form of Government
What the Constitution compromise regarding representation?
Small states = equal representation - senate
Large states = proportional representation - House
What is a codified constitution?
One that sets out certain powers possessed by the National Government, leaving all other power to the states or the people. Deliberately complicated and demanding amendment process
What are the 2 deliberately vague clauses?
Congress is allowed to
'provide for common defence and general welfare of the US'
'make all laws that are necessary and proper'
Give 3 examples of political processes/organisations that aren't mentioned in the Constitution
- presidential primaries
- congressional committees
- presidents cabinet
What are the 3 branches of government?
Legislature - Congress
Executive - President
Judiciary - Supreme Court
What is Separation of Powers?
The idea that political power is distributed among the branches, which act independently and interdependently
Give an example of separation of personnel?
Biden and Clinton resigned from the Senate in 2009
Checks by the executive on the legislative (2)
Recommend legislation - by the State of the Union address
Veto legislation - President can veto legislation passed by Congress
How many vetoes did Clinton use?
Checks by the executive on the judiciary? (2)
Appoints all judges to trial, appeal and Supreme courts
Power of Pardon - Ford pardoned Nixon in 1974
Checks by the legislature on the executive (5)
- Congress can amend, delay or reject legislation
- Congress can override the Presidents veto with a 2/3s majority
- Control the budget, can limit the Presidents actions by this
- Senate confirms many executive appointments and all judicial appointments
How does Congress impeach an official?
House impeached by a simple majority
Senate holds trial
Checks by the legislature on the judiciary? (3)
Power of impeachment of a judicial member
Can propose constitutional amendments that can overturn a SC decision - 16th amendment to allow Congress to levy income tax
Senate has power to confirm presidential appointments to the judiciary
Checks by the Judiciary on the legislature (1)
- declare acts of Congress unconstitutional and therefore null and void
Give an example of legislation being deemed unconstitutional
2012 Obamacare was ruled constitutional, but a clause that made healthcare insurance compulsory was deemed unconstitutional
Check by the Judiciary on the executive
Judicial review, deem any action of an executive official unconstitutional
2006 deemed actions of Guantanamo Bay unconstitutional
When was the last time the Senate rejected a treaty from its own party?
What do checks and balances promote?
Bipartisanship and compromise between the President and Congress.
Congress is most effective when there is a bipartisan approach
What is Federalism
Theory of government where political power is divided between a national government and state governments, each having their own area of substantive jurisdiction.
What has led to the development of federalism and the role of federal government? (6)
Improvements in communication
Growth of population
How does the Constitution influence federalism? (3)
- Gives exclusive powers to the national government.
eg. Coin money, negotiate treaties
- Guarantees state rights
eg. Equal representation in Congress
- States responsibilities
Eg. Return fugitives to other states
What were the 4 key areas that affected federalism under George W Bush
What did Bush do with education?
No Child Left Behind Act
- created uniform national tests
- moved children from failing schools
What did Bush do with healthcare?
Expanded Medicare in 2003.
- previously introduced by President Johnson
- federal healthcare programme for the elderly