Flashcards in Constitutional Deck (94)
Original jurisdiction of SC?
Cases between states
(and others which have concurrent jurisdiction)
SC as appellate level?
3-judge Federal District Court panels
granting/denying injunctive relief
Standard for "justiciability"?
"case and controversy"
Mootness (claim resolved)
(1) Controversies capable of repetition but evading review (pregnancy)
(2) Class action (if claims of other class members still viable)
(1) Injury - direct or personal (not only economic)
(2) Causation between injury and conduct
(3) Redressability - decision capable of eliminating grievance
Standing to enforce government statute?
If P is within "zone of interests" Congress intended to protect
Standing of organization - 3 conditions
(1) Injury to member (i.e. who can sue independently) (not mere ideological objection)
(2) Injury related to org's purpose
(3) Individual member participation not required
No "citizenship" standing - exception?
10th amendment violation - interference with power reserved for states
No "taxpayer" standing - exception?
Establishment clause (when spending power is involved)
When disposition rests on unsettled question of state law?
Pending state proceedings?
EXC: proven harassment or bad faith prosecution
11th amendment restriction on claims against state government - what is not barred
- State waives
- Claims against local government
- Federal bankruptcy court
- Against state officers
- 14th amendment - if Congress intended to remove state immunity
No 3rd party standing - 2 exceptions?
(1) Close relationship: doctor-patient (OK)
(2) Injured party unlikely to assert own rights
(3) Organization (see 3 conditions)
Ripeness - considerations for exception?
(1) Hardship suffered w/o pre-enforcement review
(2) Fitness of issues and records (enough for review even though no enforcement yet?)
Examples of non-justiciable political Qs
"Guarantee clause" - republican form of government guaranteed
Conditions for review of state law decision
No "independent and adequate state law ground".
(resolving federal matter won't help outcome)
Final judgment rule.
Congress's "necessary and proper" power?
Cannot support federal law alone. Only with another federal question
Standard to uphold taxation
Reasonable relationship to revenue production OR Congress has power to regulate taxed activity
Any public purpose
Commerce power - law must:
activities that have substantial effect on
No Federal Police Power - exceptions?
Cong can regulate existing commercial activity, cannot:
Compel it! (Obamacare)
But can "induce" by putting strings on grants - if expressly stated
Delegation of legislative powers standard?
"Intelligible standards" set for delegate to follow (almost anything passes!)
Can Cong prohibit "harmful commercial activity"?
Legislative veto of executive action?
Bicameralism OR presentment to Pres
Appointment of inferior officers - to whom?
Anyone, but not Cong.
Removal of officers - by whom and how?
High level - by President at will
By Congress through impeachment
Lower level - by President subject to Congressional limitations
Treaty / Executive Agreement - Senate approval?
Only for treaty
Treaty / Executive Agreement - conflict with state law
Both supersede state law